Research and Development

Everything about Kefir Everything about Kefir

Everything about Kefir Kefir is a fermented drink obtained from milk which is originated from Caucasian mountains in Russia. Kefir drink is used in Russia in order to cure or prevent some diseases. From therapeutic and nutritional point of view, it is consumed in most regions across world including southwest Asian nations, Northern and Eastern Europe, North America and Japan. Kefir has been developed and used vastly in USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, former Russia, Hungary, and the Netherlands and it is known in Sweden, Norway, Germany and Finland. Kefir is also enjoyed considerable growth in Egypt, Australia and Brazil, America and Japan. Based on some hypotheses, Kefir was first discovered by nomad Caucasian shepherds as a result of fermentation of afresh milk which was carrying in their leather container.  Earlier, Kefir was attributed to its therapeutic and medicinal properties in Caucasian mountains. Sour acid flavor and energizing properties of Kefir is its salient specifications and is considered as an optimal dairy drink. Concentration and firmness of Kefir is diluted similar to yogurt. Sourness and fat of Kefir is enjoyable than can be consumed and mixed along with honey and other fruits. Nutritional Specifications Kefir is a famous and well-known drink in Middle East and is a diet for individuals suffering from non- toleration of lactose which is able to digest a large volume of lactose. Consequently, degree of lactose and beta galactosidise in Kefir is decreased and increased respectively due to fermentation. Proteins available in Kefir are digested to some extent and autolysis themselves in body easily. Tryptophan is a necessary amino acid in Kefir which affects nervous system. Also, Kefir is considered as a drinkable yogurt and an energizer product as well as a natural probiotic. Kefir helps cellular growth, preservation and activity using carbohydrates, fats and proteins. High nutritional and health value of Kefir is numerous. Therefore, Kefir is recommended to be used for children, adults, pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, old people and patients suffering from lack of tolerance of lactose. Patients hospitalized in hospitals in Russia are given Kefir drink everyday which is common and ordinary. Nowadays, pregnant women who gave birth to a child are encouraged to drink Kefir and in most cases, Kefir is used as a child food for Russian children who have been newly separated from mothers’ milk. Microbial Initiators Kefir microorganisms are non- pathogenic, positive and negative warm and cold antibacterial and many fungi which have competitive effect on snit- salmonella. Kefir microorganisms reduce activity of excrement enzymes in intestinal system. Many Kefir bacteria are not similar to bacteria available in yogurt, while yeasts produce carbon dioxide. Other bacteria produce a viscosity gum which turns all microorganisms into a gelatin pieces. A great amount of lactobacillus and sarcomeres are used for production of Kefir. In some resources, Kefir is known as fermented products as a result of milk and lactobacillus. Kefir Seeds Kefir seeds are a mixture of useful bacteria (lactobacillus, lacto caucus, loconostock and stobacter) and fermentations (lactose fermentation and no lactose fermentation) with polysaccharides. Apparently, Kefir seeds are similar to a cauliflower pieces as diameter as 3- 20 ml. seeds are similar to white gelatin or yellow- color particles, combined from 13% protein with dried weight and 24% polysaccharides. Any milk transfer or transport in temperature of room or in 22 degrees of centigrade will lead to instability of cultured Kefir seeds. Microbial combination of Kefir seed includes lactobacillus, streptococcus, lactic acid and fermentation (yeast) which is counted in two cultures weekly and for a period of seven week. Kefir seeds have permanent properties of growth and reproduction, so that their population will always remain stable and fixed. Combinations of kefir seeds are susceptible to some cases and their population will be declined if touched them, the most important of which are as follows: 1- metals, 2 light, 3- temperature, etc. it should be noted that Kefir seed is not accessible easily and is very expensive. Kefir Nutritional- Chemical Combination Kefir is rich in vitamins, minerals, and necessary amino acids and protein with the capability of easy digestion which helps boost health condition of individual. Also, Kefir is rich in vitamin “B12’ and vitamin “B1”, amino acids, methionine, folic acid, vitamin “K”, magnesium, phosphor and copper which helps autolysis (self erosion) of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and growth of cells and generation of energy. Lactic acid, carbon dioxide, along with aromatics such as di-acetyl is major constituents of Kefir during fermentation. Kefir product is an extract of lactobacillus Kefir no fascine which can be found across Kefir seed and its center to a great extent. It should be noted that lactobacillus population of Kefir is found only in small part of surface layer. Combination of Kefir is changeable and is not specified clearly and is related to the source of milk fat, combination of seeds or culture environment and technology of processing kefir. Kefir Traditional Processing Kefir is produced by seeds of Kefir and cultures of Kefir using fermentation of milk. Kefir is made of milks cow, goat, sheep, coconut, soya and cocoa. There are several criteria for selection of milk such as pasteurized, full fat, low fat, skimmed milk or milk top. Goat milk is popular milk for production of Kefir which is highly welcomed. Kefir Industrial Processing In traditional processing, Kefir is produced with adding Kefir seeds. Raw mil is first boiled and it is cooled up to 20- 25 degrees of centigrade and 10 – 20 percent (generally 5%) of Kefir seed is added to it. After a period of 18 – 24 hour fermentation, Kefir is separated by a filter and a strainer at the temperature of 20 – 25 degrees of centigrade. Then, it is cooled and is stored in cold temperature. Kefir is put at the temperature of four degrees of centigrade and is readied to be used after awhile.

See details
 Deficiency of Vitamin D an Effective Factor in Outbreak of MS Deficiency of Vitamin D an Effective Factor in Outbreak of MS

Deficiency of Vitamin “D”, an Effective Factor in Outbreak of MS (Multiple Sclerosis) A veteran Neurologist Dr. Mo’tamed in an interview said: “Main cause behind outbreak of MS (Multiple Sclerosis) is not yet known accurately but environmental factors contribute to the outbreak of the disease, including affliction to some viruses or obesity and also in terms of food nourishment, deficiency of vitamin “D”, etc.” He reiterated: “MS may be appeared in some countries especially Scandinavia which sun is rarely found due to its climatic conditions.” Deficiency of vitamin “D” in these countries is more prevalent. On the contrary, prevalence of MS is less in countries which are located near Equator and continental regions. In a study made on patients suffering MS (Multiple Sclerosis), it was found that these patients enjoy less estrogen level of vitamin “D”. For this purpose, vitamin “D” is recommended to patients suffering from MS.” He further noted that vitamin “D” plays an important role in various mechanisms in different reactions in body and making brain white material is one of the main tasks of vitamin “D”. Omega 3, Omega 6, and Safety of Athletes Severe and tense physical activities are led to creation of unpleasant changes in safety parameters such as total leucocyte, lymphocytes count, etc. and these changes vary dependent on severity of sports activity and its duration. Generally speaking, heavy sports activities are followed up with increased oxidative stress, instigation of inflammatory system, and changes in bronchitis level and respiratory ways. In each of two aeration and anaerobic sports, production of active species of oxygen and nitrogen (RNOS) is increased. This oxidative stress causes weakness of body antioxidant defense and oxidation in body sensitive tissues. Hereunder are major complications of oxidative stress: disorder in production of muscular power, disorder in recovery after doing sports activity and finally, acute and chronic inflammation. The athletes who carry out heavy and severe sports exercises are diagnosed with upper respiratory system infections one and two weeks after doing exercise. This state can be coincided with respiratory and bronchitis disorder which is known as Exercise Bronchitis (EIB). Changes in Sports Activity Most professional sportsmen and athletes face with severe pains during permanent and continuous exercises. Moreover, some amateur athletes also face with pain due to doing very heavy exercise. These chronic pains are the ache that athlete fells in each time of doing exercise especially doing continuous exercises. These pains are due to the pressures incurred to various body organs during exercise and cause athletes fail to continue exercise for a long period. Most athletes have to take anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen which have unknown complications. Moreover chronic pains, destruction of protein of muscular fibers during exercise will cause considerable slump in performance of athletes. Increased inflammatory state even intensifies protein destruction and causes postponement of recovery period of athletes. To reduce inflammation, which is main origin of unwanted and inappropriate complications, suitable and proper nutritional strategies can be sought. Moreover soothing inflammation, pain and analysis of functional power will cause prevention of outbreak of these complications as well. With prescribing a balanced food diet for athlete and adding some nutrients, not only sports efficiency can be increased after doing sport activity, but also athlete can be immunized from complications of excessive consumption of anti-inflammatory drugs. Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Reducing Inflammation In general, this group of unsaturated fatty acids has anti-inflammatory properties. Several studies have shown that supplements such as Eco Zapentonic Acid (EPA) and Decoys Hexanonic acid (DHA) available in fatty fishes have increased their sports performance significantly. Use of omega 3 by athletes cause increased metabolic and cardiovascular health. Omega 3 and Methods of Improving Sports Performance These fatty acids can enhance and improve performance of athletes: 1) increase of consumption of fat and reduce muscular analysis, 2) reducing effects of inflammation and production of inflammatory intermediates, 3) reducing trauma as a result of acceleration of improvement of ills and acceleration of reconstruction of muscles, 4) treatment and/or prevention of bronchitis as a result of sports activity, 5) reduction of cardiovascular diseases among athletes, 6) increase of contraction power of muscular fibers and reduction of hardness of muscles,. If omega-3 fatty acids are added to diet of athlete sufficiently, the said objectives can be materialized. Omega- 3 Resources Consumption of fish, which is the important rich resources of omega- 3 fatty acids especially DHA, can control inflammation as a result of heavy sports exercise and its subsequent pain. Hereunder are regarded as the most important animal and herbal resources rich in omega- 3 fatty acids: fatty fish such as salmon, tuna fish, salmon, seed of cotton, oil of cotton seed, and vegetables with dark- green leaves, and canola oil Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Inflammation-Yielding Fats Unlike omega-3 fatty acids, omega- 6 fatty acids can cause increased inflammation, spasm, vascular contraction and thrombosis hike and also blood coagulation. Oxidative stress and inflammation created during exercise is intensified with the consumption of omega- 6 fatty acids. Omega- 6 Resources Hereunder are regarded as the most important resources for omega- 6 fatty acids: most herbal oils used in cooking such as sunflower, soya and cotton seed. Best Ratio of Omega- 3 and Omega- 6 Value of receiving omega-6 fatty acid is 10 fold more than that of omega- 3 fatty acid. As mentioned in above, omega- 3 and omega-6 fatty acids have direct relationship with inflammation. It is obvious that these two unsaturated fatty acids should be taken into consideration in a healthy diet for athletes. Several studies have shown that ratio of omega- 3 fatty acids should be increased in order to reduce and control inflammation among athletes and also acceleration of muscular reconstruction after doing exercise and in return, consumption of omega- 6 should be decreased. 1:2 ratio is the best ratio of omega- 6 to omega- 3 fatty acids. For most athletes, general manual for consumption of omega- 3 fatty acid (DHA and EPA) is two gram/day. Therefore, athletes are better to increase consumption of fish species such as salmon, tuna fish, and herbal resources rich in omega -3. Since omega- 3 fatty acids are “unsaturated” and are more prone to oxidation, it is better to consume it with solution antioxidant supplements such as vitamin “E”.

See details
Probiotics, Useful and Fruitful Bacteria Probiotics, Useful and Fruitful Bacteria

Probiotics, Useful and Fruitful Bacteria!!! With the progress of human communities, attaining top science and technologies in food industries in particular, role of nutrition and food nourishment is a factor for safeguarding survival and removal of body’s required energy. In other words, role of nutrition has currency changed for boosting health and helps treatment of various diseases. Probiotic is a word which has been vastly used in many medical studies. What is probiotic? Probiotic is a Greek word which is meant “For Life”. World Health Organization (WHO) defines this terminology for live microorganisms. Not only “probiotic” is not considered as pathogen, but also it will help improve health of host. “Probiotic” includes various types of bacteria, fungus and fermentation. Human intestine includes almost 100 trillion live bacteria that generate intestine microbial fleur. These bacteria include useful and harmful types. Useful bacteria have an important role in production of body’s required compounds such as vitamins “B” and “K”, short chain fatty acids, amino acids and various antioxidants and also control of growth of detrimental bacteria and fighting with infections and pathogenic factors. ( Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects to humans and animals. Introduction of the concept is generally attributed to Nobel Prize recipient Élie Metchnikoff, who in 1907 suggested that “the dependence of the intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes”. A significant expansion of the potential market for probiotics has led to higher requirements for scientific substantiation of putative beneficial effects conferred by the microorganisms. Studies on the medical benefits of probiotics have yet to reveal a cause-effect relationship, and their medical effectiveness has yet to be conclusively proven for most of the studies conducted thus far. Commonly claimed benefits of probiotics include the decrease of potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms; the reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort; the strengthening of the immune system; the improvement of the skin’s function; the improvement of bowel regularity; the strengthening of the resistance to cedar pollen allergens; the decrease in body pathogens; the reduction of flatulence and bloating; the protection of DNA; the protection of proteins and lipids from oxidative damage; and the maintaining of individual intestinal macrobiotic in subjects receiving antibiotic treatment. Scientific evidence to date has been insufficient to substantiate any anti-disease claims or health benefits from consuming probiotics.) Lactobacillus and bifid and bacterium are considered as most important and salient species of probiotic bacteria. What Are the Factors Which Cause Probiotics’ Growth? When a child is born, his or her intestine lacks any bacteria. In other words, human intestine lacks any bacteria at the time of birth. Breastfeeding or mother’s milk contains compounds named bifidious which causes growth of bifid-o bacterium in infant’s intestine. For this purpose, breastfeeding is of paramount importance in strengthening infant’s immune system. Consumption of fermentable and low – digest carbohydrates will cause motivation of growth of probiotics in intestine. These carbohydrates, which are considered as suitable food source for increasing probiotics’ mass, mainly include oligosaccharides, lactulose, galactic oligosaccharides, and multi oligosaccharides. Of their food resources, it can be referred to banana, honey, asparagus, leek, garlic and onion. These nutrients, which are required for growth of probiotics, are called as Prebiotic”. Moreover, the word entitled “Symbiotic” is referred to byproducts containing a mixture of pre- and probiotics. Since some factors such as improper nutrition, consumption of antibiotics and stress causes reduced value of useful bacteria in intestine, consumption of foodstuff enriched with probiotics and/or food supplements in the form of pill, powder, etc. seem necessary. Imbalance between useful and harmful bacteria, moreover reducing health level of body, cause outbreak of diarrhea, constipation, inflammatory diseases of intestine, reduced efficiency of immune system, allergy and different types of cancers. Who Should Consume “Probiotics”? Treatment with antibiotics, moreover destruction of pathogenic factors, will cause eradication of useful bacteria, creation of gas and spasm and outbreak of diarrhea among 20 percent of patients. Entangling and disrupting osmosis balance of intestine and/or growth of detrimental bacteria named “ clostridium dyphicel ” have been cited as the main cause of diarrhea. Simultaneous consumption of probiotics during and after treatment with antibiotics is necessary for the provision of useful intestine fluorine as well as production of vitamins Group “B”. When children and adults are diagnosed with infectious diarrhea, useful intestine bacteria are increased after consumption of probiotics which will destroy pathogenic factors causing diarrhea, so that treatment span will be shortened as well. It should be noted that probiotics play their role with reducing acidity of intestine, production of antibacterial compounds and also competing in consumption of required nourishment of pathogenic factors. In other words, probiotics are tasked with reducing acidity (pH) of intestine, production of antibacterial compounds and also competing in consumption of required food of pathogenic factors. The results of studies show that with producing constructive and effective compounds, probiotics will help reduce inflammation, soothe symptoms of intestine’s inflammatory diseases and syndrome of stimulating intestine such as abdominal ache, flatulence (stomach gas), and diarrhea. In addition, probiotics help better digestion of herbal fibers resistant to digestion and increase toleration of patients to consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Probiotics play a leading and important role in strengthening body immune system. With the creation of a barrier against entrance of pathogen factors to blood, probiotics causes reduction of acidity of intestine, production of antibacterial materials such as organic acids, bacitracin, peroxide hydrogen, etc. Moreover, probiotics cause formation of protective layers on mucus, prevent substitution of pathogenic agents, increase cells producing immunoglobulin “A”, produce cytokines, and increase phagocytosis of pathogenic factors, increase lymphocytes “T” and white globules in cellular immune system. Many people are diagnosed with some symptoms such as flatulence (stomach gas), abdominal pain and diarrhea after consumption of dairies such as milk due to the shortage of lactose enzyme. Lack of analyzing lactose or milk sugar has been cited as the main aim behind outbreak of the said symptoms. With turning lactose into lactic acid, lactobacillus can be useful in reduction of gastrointestinal complications and also increase of toleration of consumption of dairies. With establishing equilibrium and strengthening performance of gastrointestinal and digestive tract, these bacteria (probiotics) soothe constipation, diarrhea and flatulence (stomach gas). Research activities also indicate that probiotics are able to reduce absorption of allergic substances from intestines. Also, probiotics are effective in reduction of infections of urinary and genital tracts in women, reduction of risk of colon cancer and also control of helicon bacteria pylori growth. When and how much should probiotics be consumed? Probiotic supplements are effective as long as they are consumed. To create positive effects of probiotics, daily receiving of food supplements with minimum 106- colony bacteria is highly recommended by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

See details
Guidance for Using Food Groups Guidance for Using Food Groups

Guidance for Using Food Groups Using four main food groups is the best possible way for ensuring of safeguarding balance and diversity in food program, i.e. bread, cereals, fruit, vegetable, milk, dairies, meat and grains. Of course, if you like not to gain weight, it is recommended not to eat more than what your body needs. Using four main food groups is the best possible way for ensuring of safeguarding balance and diversity in food program, i.e. bread, cereals, fruit, vegetable, milk, dairies, meat and grains. Bread and Grains Group Grains and bread group includes bread, rice, macaroni, and grains. This group supplies our daily maximum energy. Do not forget to make rice in steamed method, so that vitamins of steam rice will be safeguarded in water. Use bran or whole-wheat flour breads such as Sangak (a kind of Iranian bread which is baked on stone) and barley bread instead of white-color breads. To complete protein of bread and grain group, it is better to consume them in mixed form with cereals, such as lentil, split pea, bean with rice, etc. Use sprout of grains and cereals in your diet, because, sprout of grains and cereals will double absorption of food which is rich in various types of body’s required vitamins. Vegetable and Fruit Group Vegetable and fruit group includes various types of leafy or root- based vegetables coupled with colorful fruits. This group conveys various types of vitamins, minerals and fiber to our body. Tomato, bell pepper, and citrus fruits and leafy vegetable are rich in vitamin “C”. It is recommend using vitamin “C” everyday. Yellow-, orange-, red- and green-color fruits and vegetables such as spinach, carrot, tomato, cantaloupe, apricot and tangerine are rich in vitamin “A”. Fresh fruits and vegetables increases strength of body to various types of infections and will cause reconstruction and rehabilitation of wounds, vision at darkness coupled with boost skin freshness. To wash vegetable, put it in a container of 5-lit. Water after preliminary cleaning and washing. Then, add five drops of dishwashing liquid in it. After five minutes, wash vegetables completely. To disinfect vegetables, pour half a tablespoon perchlorate powder in five liters of water and leave vegetable for five minutes. Finally, wash vegetable completely and consume it. Consuming fruit after eating food will increase better absorption of iron. Daily consumption of fresh fruits and vegetable will reduce risk of cancer considerably. Food fibers which are found in fruit and vegetable group will low blood fat and also prevents from constipation. Moreover, risk of cancer will be reduced considerably. Milk and Dairies Group Milk and dairies group includes milk, yogurt, and whey (dried whey). Adults are recommended using 2-3 cups of milk or yogurt daily, otherwise, their body will lose required calcium and their bone will be decalcified in the long run. Consumption of dairies is very low among Iranians. For this purpose, most adults and adolescents are suffering from osteoporosis. Full- fat milks have high calorie and can cause you overweight. If you can, use low- fat milk (2.5 percent fat milk). If milk is not pasteurized, add small water to it and let it boil for one minute. Then, drink it with peace of mind. Keep fresh cheese in brine (salty water) for at least two months and then eat it. Before consuming any whey, add water to it. Then. Boil it for at least 5 to 10 minutes and eat it. High consumption of carbonated soft drink will entangle balance of body phosphor and calcium. Repeated drinking of carbonated soft drink will cause outbreak of osteoporosis. Group 4: Meat, Cereals and Egg Protein of egg white is very high. Even, its amount exceeds protein of meat. At any rate, protein of meat is better than protein of egg white. Before cooking meat, chicken and fish, their fat should be separated. Chicken’s skin has high fat which should be peeled out before consuming. Fat and cholesterol of brain, tongue and tripe is very high and it is recommended not to exceed consuming these materials. It is better to consume white meat like poultry and fish meat instead of consuming red meat. However, it is recommended to use poultry meat. It is also recommended to eat fish twice a week. Cholesterol of egg yolk is also high and adults are recommended not to eat more than three eggs in a week whether lonely or mixed form in Kuku (a mixture of egg with vegetables), cutlets and omelets. For boiling frozen meat, it should be cooked immediately after being taken out from refrigerator. For de- freezing meat, it should be taken out from freezer 24 hours before cooking and then, it should be kept in refrigerator. Girls and women who are experiencing growth especially children under 2 years old with anemia and iron deficiency should receive more ferrous food. The foods rich in iron include as follows: meat, liver, egg, cereals, brains, dried fruits, green- leaf vegetables such as spinach, etc. For boiling frozen meat, they should be cooked immediately after being out from freezer. Never ever drink tea one hour before eating and two hours after eating, because, drinking tea in these periods will prevent iron from being absorbed in body. Iron drop should be given to infants as of six-month old and it should last for two years. After delivery, women are recommended to use iron drop for 3 to 4 months after childbirth. Group 5: Fats and Pastries (Cookies) Adults and adolescents of this group should consume minimum pastries. Due to their high saturated fat and also high trance fatty acids, shortening oil is not recommended to be used, because, these oils are detrimental for health condition and can outbreak cardiovascular diseases. It is better to remove consumption of shortening oil from your diet and replace them with vegetable oils. On the other hand, vegetable oils are oxidized in high temperatures in a way that these oils in high temperature can cause cancer. Vegetable oils should not be exposed to the direct temperature of frying; rather, they should be poured on food such as rice and salad. To fry food, use vegetable oils special of frying. Omega- 3 fats are useful for our health and consumption of omega- 3 is recommended to all. Fish, seafood and nuts of almond and walnut are rich in omega 3. It is recommended to eat fish twice a week and/or try to consume walnut in breakfast. Keep consumable oils in a closed- cap container and also keep them away from direct sunlight. It is better to use date instead of sugar and lump sugar for drinking tea. Low- salt and gas- free dough and/or water are recommended to be replaced with carbonated soft drinks. Never ever use carbonated soft drink. To prevent from blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, prevent from eating high amount of salt. Avoid adding salt to food at the tablecloth gathering. Choose iodine- rich salt and be careful to use purified salt for consumption. To keep iodine available in salt, store and keep in in dark-color container (salt sprayer). Keep salt shaker cap closed always. Do not place saltshaker in a wet environment and add salt to food at the end of cooking, because, it salt is used in food for a long time; its iodine will be removed. Keep in mind that using iodine- based salt is the sole way for assuring of receiving body’s required iodine and also prevention of goiter.

See details
Nutritional Recommendations for Passengers Nutritional Recommendations for Passengers

Nutritional Recommendations for Passengers Willy-nilly, travel crates changes in our food diet pattern. Since water and food can always be considered as source of pollution, selecting of food in trip accurately and observing hygienic and sanitary principles in providing and consuming food will help us prevent from food poisoning and problems as a result of food pollutions. Given the above issue, let’s experience a memorable trip. Health of Drinking Water: Use standard bottles of mineral water for drinking water, otherwise, boil water before drinking ALWAYS . Boiling is the best way for eradication of bacteria in water. Boil water and it is alone for a period of one minute. Let water to be cooled in temperature of room. If the above cases are observed, bacteria and parasites, causing diarrhea, will be removed. In higher heights (exceeding 2,000 meters), water is boiled in low temperature. Therefore, eradication of microbes in water will be diminished. In this state, keep water boiling for at least 3-5 minutes. Adding a partial o salt to each liter of water or pouring it from a clean container to another container will boost taste of water favorably. Avoid adding ice cube to water especially in places where you are not confident on safety of water. Avoid brushing your teeth with non- drinkable and non- sanitary water. Health and Safety of Foodstuff: Want to go restaurant, select clean, tidy and crowded restaurant ALWAYS. Never ever buy foods from street vendors. Always, wash your hand with water and soap before eating. Eat only the foods which have been cooked completely. Avoid eating half- cooked foods especially meat. If meat is grilled in thick or in large size, its central part may not be cooked or grilled well and this issue will cause outbreak of dangerous and risky diseases. Eating and consuming vegetables and salad is not recommended in restaurant. If possible, consume the fruits that you have peeled. Additional food should be put in refrigerator immediately. Never ever let food to be cooled in temperature of room. To reheat food, be confident that all its parts especially its central part has been warmed completely. To store food, always keep cooked foods separated from raw foods, otherwise, pollution is transmitted from raw to cooked foods easily. Risky- prone foods will increase food poisoning which include chicken, egg, red meat, milk and fish Be confident from healthy condition of materials and well cooking of food always. Travelling Diarrhea: Diagnosed with diarrhea while travelling is the main problem of most travelers or passengers afflict with eating contaminated food or drinking polluted water. However, most passengers are diagnosed with diarrhea while travelling. This problem can be observed mostly among youth and young strata. People who consume anti-acid drugs are more susceptible to diarrhea. Diarrhea observed during travel is healed mostly after three to seven days even without any treatment but a small number of travelers are diagnosed with continuation of diarrhea. Consuming pasteurized yogurt is useful for preventing from diarrhea, because, yogurt contains useful bacteria which can substitute in intestine and reduces growth of pathogenic bacteria. What Should One Do during Diarrhea? If you can, refer to physician before undergoing self therapy? Since diarrhea wards off water and electrolytes especially potassium and magnesium from body, use liquids as much as possible. Use ORS solution in severe diarrhea. Under such circumstances, it is recommended to eat chicken soup with steamed rice, crispy biscuit and fruits like banana. During diarrhea, avoid consumption of milk and fatty foods. Since a large volume of water is wasted from body of children during diarrhea, try to give them soup, diluted puree, etc. Never ever cut breastfeeding while infants are diagnosed with diarrhea. Some Nutritional Advices for Passengers: Eat breakfast everyday completely, including high- protein food such as egg, cheese and pasteurized milk. Never ever omit breakfast from your diet, because, if nothing is eaten during breakfast, your blood pressure and efficiency will reduce considerably. Lack of consuming fruits, vegetables, salad, cereals, etc. in the course of travel will cause outbreak of some problems such as constipation. If fruit and vegetable are not used during travel, body necessary vitamins like “A”, “b” and “C” will reduce. Buy vegetables for eating and also vegetables for making salad yourself. After being ensured of their disinfection, then, you are allowed to eat them. Consumption of dairies such as milk may be reduced in travel which will incur irreparable loss to the health condition of people especially breastfeeding mothers and the elderly. Daily consumption of at least two cups of milks or pasteurized yogurt is highly recommended. Never ever use readymade foods such as sandwich, pizza, hamburger, snack, etc. as much as possible, because, these foods have usually been fried which contain various types of fatty sauces. For preparing readymade foods, oil may be heated for repeated times and/or oil may be used that is exposed to detrimental or oxidized temperature. However, consumption of these foods are not recommended. Try to consume and d rink dough (yogurt drink) during lunch and dinner instead of carbonated soft drinks. Avoid gluttony and overeating or overusing junk foods and snacks. Do not forget walking and motivation. It is observed that many passengers have gained weight while they have returned from travel. Let’s experience a pleasurable and enjoyable trip along with health with observing proper nutrition, hygienic and sanitary principles.

See details
Effect of Yogurt on Health of Intestine Effect of Yogurt on Health of Intestine

Effect of Yogurt on Health of Intestine Microbial combination of gastrointestinal tract and microbes entered to GI tract via food can have useful or harmful effects on health. Several evidences indicate that some bacteria are used for fermentation of dairy products such as yogurt and a number of specific and fruitful microbes of GI tract have powerful anti- pathogenic and anti- inflammatory effects. These microbes cause promotion of body resistance against various types of pathogenic microbes which can treat and prevent from outbreak of diseases as a result of growth and reproduction of these pathogenic microbes. “Probiotic” products include fruitful bacteria which stay in intestine after consumption and leave fruitful effects in human health. The term “probiotic”, which has a Latin terminology meant “life”. World Health Organization (WHO) defines this term to “Live Organisms”. If probiotic is used properly, it can leave “health” parameter for its host. As a matter of fact, probiotics are consumed in the following two forms: As food supplement in the form of powder, syrup or pill, As food enriched with probiotics, for example, if probiotic bacteria are used in production of any fermented dairy product such as yogurt, the product is called “probiotic”. Yogurt is a highly traditional consumed food which contains considerable amounts of probiotics. “Lactic Acid” is used for production of yogurt which causes fermentation of milk and conversion of lactose sugar to lactic acid. Development of application of probiotics has offered new approaches on their role in health and prevention of diseases in order to reduce microbial combination of gastrointestinal tract. Many studies have shown fruitful and therapeutic effects of probiotics in human intestine. Hereunder, the most important evidences will be discussed with relation to the consumption of yogurt and various types of “Lactic Acid” bacteria used for fermentation of milk and valuable therapeutic effects of them especially on the performance of gastrointestinal tract performance and prevention of diseases. Nutritional Value of Yogurt Combination of yogurt nutrients is the same combination of milk nutrients which has changed under the influence of type and duration of fermentation and type of used microbes partially Vitamins Group “B” Principally, process of fermentation will cause reduction of milk vitamins as compared with its mineral, because, vitamins are more susceptible than minerals in terms of environmental change. The most important factors which lead to reduction of vitamins include as follows: temperature and pasteurization, ultrafiltration, mixing and oxidative conditions. Moreover, type of microbial culture used for fermentation is effective for reduction of milk vitamins. Species of “Lactic Acid” bacteria need vitamins of Group “B” for growth and reproduction, the most important of which are vitamin “B12”. Some species of the bacteria are able to synthesize “B12”. Therefore, accurate selection of bacteria specifies used for fermentation can be considered as an important fact in line with prevention of considerable reduction of “B12”. Lactose Dairies are the most important source for providing lactose sugar. Before fermentation, the amount of lactose in milk is almost 5 percent. “Lactic Acid” bacteria turn lactose sugar into lactic acid. Therefore, acidity property of yogurt is more than milk. For this purpose, people who suffer from intolerance of lactose can tolerate yogurt better than milk. Protein Usually, amount of protein in factory- made yogurts is more than milk, because, some fat- free powdered milk is added to yogurt in production of yogurt for firmness (consistency). There is a common concept that yogurt protein is digested easier than milk, because, fermenting bacteria carry out the initial stages of digestion of protein. With increased time of preservation of yogurt, its protein can be digested better. During fermentation, both temperature and acid production is led milk casein to be congealed. Therefore, yogurt proteins enjoy high bio quality as compared with milk proteins. Fats Milk fats face change during fermentation. It is shown that concentration of linoleic acid in yogurt is more than that of milk. This fatty acid has stimulating property of body immune and anticancer system. In a new study conducted on breast and intestine cancer, effects of this fatty acid has been observed in reproduction of cancerous cells. Minerals Yogurt is a good source for calcium and phosphor. In other words, yogurt is rich in calcium and phosphor. As a matter of fact, yogurt, milk, cheese and other dairy products provide main part of requirement to calcium in our daily diet. Calcium and magnesium of yogurt is absorbed easier than milk due to its acidity. Therefore, yogurt is highly recommended to women in menopausal period who are at high risk of bone and osteoporosis disorders. Mechanisms Presented on Potential Advantages of Yogurt on Performance of Intestine Microbial Composition of Intestine Lactobacillus is one of the microbes existing in microbial composition of small- and large intestine. Ability of prevention of growth of pathogenic bacteria in intestine is one of the most important properties of lactobacillus. On the other hand, various species of “Lactic Acid” bacteria enjoys different ability for survival in gastrointestinal environment. Immunological Responses of Intestine Lymphoid tissue of mucus part of gastrointestinal tract is considered as the first defensive line against eaten pathogenic microbes. Studies have shown that “Lactic Acid” bacteria will lead to the promotion of immunological performance of lymphoid tissue of GI tract. Creation of low acidity, production of organic acids, carbon dioxide, peroxide hydrogen (as main killing factor of bacteria), ethanol, consumption of nutrients and competing for physical environment by these bacteria are of the effective factors in this respect. Also, studies have shown that edible consumption of “Lactic Acid” bacteria through consumption of yogurt will cause increase of secretion of immunoglobulin “A” and also increased number of its secreting cells in small intestine of mouse. It should be noted that immunoglobulin “A” has a basic and fundamental role in controlling pathogenic bacteria in intestine.

See details
Dough (Yogurt Drink) Best Drink Dough (Yogurt Drink) Best Drink

Dough (Yogurt Drink) Best Drink History: “Dough” is an objective adjective which is derived from the verb “milking”. Literally, the word “Dough” is meant something which is milked. Dough is of traditional and familiar drink in Iran. In Iran, Dough was first considered as a byproduct of butter. For preparing dough, full- fat yogurt was first diluted with water and then, its fat was separated using a large leather bottle (goatskin) and the remaining was consumed as dough (yogurt drink). Nowadays, previous production trend of dough has changed and is produced industrially based on technology. In addition, production method of dough has been changed as a fermented milk drink. Dough is a dairy drink which is obtained from mixing pasteurized yogurt, herbal essences and salt. This product has almost 50% of nutritional value of yogurt in an average. Since additives and preservatives are not used in production of yogurt, it has high nutritional value in terms of health of consumer. In this article, it is tried to speak more about this traditional drink that Iranians drink “dough” along with food. Nutritional Value of Dough “Dough” is a suitable and proper dairy product which can be consumed instead of carbonated soft drink in our food basket. Dough is a healthy and useful drink that can meet our major daily requirement to calcium and vitamins of Group “B”. Moreover having nutritional benefits, dough (yogurt drink) includes useful and fruitful bacteria which has high effects on gastrointestinal (GI) health. Each liter of dough includes 270 k/calorie energy, 1.5 to 2 percent protein, 0.5 percent fat and 0.6 percent gram calcium. Given the high nutritional value of dough, rate of its calcium, phosphor and protein is very high and these materials are necessary for ossification, oxidation and internal metabolism of body. Of course, it is better drink gas- free dough and with low amount of salt in it.  Since gasification of drinks (such as dough) will give a better flavor, such issue will reduce its nutritional value. Therefore it is recommended to drink degasification dough. Given the above issue, ordinary and regular dough is prioritized to gasified dough. Various types of gas- free and gasified dough is better to be kept in refrigerator for increasing quality and durability of dough. Moreover adding salt, peppermint also is added to commercial and industrial dough (yogurt drink), because, peppermint has anti-flatulent property while the very dough is flatulent. For preparing dough, one can add field basil, dried and smashed petals of damask rose to it which will give an excellent flavor and taste to dough. Dough (Yogurt Drink), the Best Drink for All Do you know water, milk, low- salt and gas- free dough and natural fruit juices are the best drinks for all especially schoolchildren? Nowadays, consumption of dough is recommended to all age brackets as a harmless and useful drink to all drinking liquids along with food is one of the common habits of people across the world. As a rite and ritual, people of every city and country show high tendency to specific drinks. In our country, drinks like water and dough were common from long time ago. In recent decades, carbonated soft drinks and Ma’ Shair (barley drink) were added to the number of other Iranian drinks. Of course, some people use such drinks without paying attention to their nutritional value because of their interest. A glance at nutritional value of such detrimental drinks such as carbonated soft drink, people can have a better choice of drinking. In our country, water has still stood at first rank as most popular drink among other drinks. Since taste of human is varied, he or she likes to taste other drinks and for this purpose, people have resort drinking others. Dough (yogurt drink) is one of traditional Iranian drinks which is considered as the most hygienic and healthy drink after water and milk. Industrial and commercial dough usually has a partial amount of salt and this salt is detrimental for those diagnosed with high blood pressure (hypertension) or kidney or heart failures. Although it is decided to remove salt from commercial dough, people and elderly are better to consume household and handmade dough instead of commercial dough. Moreover its nutritional benefit, dough includes useful bacteria that have constructive and fruitful effects on health of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. If dough is consumed repeatedly, its useful bacteria of streptococcus, thermophiles and lactobacillus bulgur’s will nestle in your gastrointestinal tract (GI) and will have very useful effects on health of your GI tract. Also, consumption of dough will cause lack of growth of detrimental organisms. It is recommended to consume dough and milk when air is polluted. These foods [milk and dough] neutralize poisons and toxics due to high phosphor, magnesium and calcium they have. Air pollution affects on body tissues, respiratory and cardiovascular system considerably. Why Should Dough Be Consumed Instead of Carbonated Soft Drink? Carbonated soft drink is one of the most popular drinks in world in a way that its consumption is increased day by day. Even, children use high amount of carbonated soft drink. Given the above issue, youth and young adults in particular show high tendency to use this detrimental drink. Here, a question may hit in your mind. Have you ever asked yourself that how much this detrimental drink i.e. carbonated soft drink is useful for you? What is the effect of carbonated soft drink on your body which has high sugar amount and calorie and also caffeine without any nutritional value in it? Relationship between Carbonated Soft Drink and Obesity [Overweight] Recent studies indicate direct effect of carbonated soft drink on increasing percentage of obesity among children. However, carbonated soft drink has direct effect on oversight and obesity of children. A two-year study in this regard showed that children, aged 12 years who use carbonated soft drink, are at high risk of obesity and overweight 1.6 fold more than that of those who do not use carbonated soft drink. Relationship between Carbonated Soft Drink and Teeth It can be said that people, who use carbonated soft drink (beverage) repeatedly, consume seven teaspoons of sugar daily which is detrimental for body health and teeth. This amount of sugar has high calorie which is harmful for health of teeth. Relationship between Carbonated Soft Drink and Bones Phosphoric acid is one of the main components of carbonated soft drink which is the main cause behind increased discharge or repletion of calcium from bones. Use of carbonated soft drink will increase outbreak of osteoporosis considerably. Recent studies on young girls showed that more consumption of this fizzy drink can exposed them to bone fracture as well. Consumption of even one or two bottles of carbonated soft drinks in a day in risky especially in adolescence. Statistics show that consumption of milk and dairies is reduced with considerable increase in consumption of carbonated soft drink.  Generally speaking, carbonated soft drink can jeopardize your health condition considerably and it is recommended not to use it anymore in order to have a better health condition. Benefits and Advantages of Main Material for Producing Dough: Yogurt As a result of fermentation of bacteria, milk is turned into yogurt. Except small and negligible differences, milk and yogurt have vitamin compound and minerals similar to each other. Although compound of minerals of milk and yogurt is similar, some minerals such as calcium in yogurt are high. Usually, yogurt has less lactose and more lactic acid than milk and for this reason, people who lack toleration of lactose and cannot use milk, it is recommended to use yogurt instead. In general, one cup of low- fat yogurt (254 gram) includes 155 kg/calorie energy, 13-gr. protein and 12-gr. carbohydrate and also 8.3-gr. fat. Of course, yogurt’s fat rate depends on milk. Yogurt is an excellent source of food which is rich in calcium (447 mg) and riboflavin and also is rich in magnesium (43 mg) and potassium (573 mg). Each cup of yogurt provides half of calcium rate as recommended for children and also 30- 40 percent of calcium as recommended for adults. Each cup of yogurt provides 20 percent of protein required by many people. Several studies have been conducted on the therapeutic and preventive effects of yogurt and the bacteria used in production of yogurt on the diseases such as cancer, infections and GI disorders.  It is believed that consumption of yogurt especially among individuals suffering from body immune system’s disorder (such as adults and adolescents) can help increase their response to relevant diseases. In general, yogurt is highly recommended to be used by people suffering from physical disorders. Yogurt helps increase health of large intestine. Yogurt includes lacto bacteria which can preserve and protect large intestine. Even, yogurt reduces cancer risk of large intestine. These bacteria help intestine’s useful bacteria to grow and cause reduction of conversion of bile into carcinogens. It seems that these bacteria in yogurt can inactive detrimental materials before being carcinogen (such as nitrates and nitrites before turning them into nitrosamine). On the other hand, yogurt like milk is rich in calcium. Calcium is a mineral that causes health of large intestine and reduces risk of cancer. Calcium is bonded with bile acids which cause cancer and prevents stimulation of large intestine by these materials. Fermentation of yogurt increases absorption of calcium and vitamins “B”. Lactic acid in yogurt helps better digestion of milk’s calcium and also helps its easier absorption. Therefore, fermentation of milk may have effects on accessibility of minerals. It is shown that calcium and phosphor in yogurt is absorbed better than that of milk. Calcium improves body immune system, that is to say that calcium increases activity of lymphocytes and production of interleukin. Yogurt helps improve intestinal infections. Yogurt is a good food for diarrhea. Many pediatricians recommend yogurt for children who suffer from malnutrition. Studies show that children with diarrhea are treated and healed rapidly when they eat yogurt. Eating low- salt yogurt and dough along with consumption of antibiotics are useful. Yogurt minimizes ill antibiotic effects on intestine’s useful bacteria. Low- fat yogurt can reduce cholesterol and this is due to the absorption of cholesterol by live bacteria in yogurt. Generally speaking, low- salt and gas- free dough and yogurt are highly recommended to children for their better growth.

See details
Gelatin and Its Nutritional Properties Gelatin and Its Nutritional Properties

Gelatin and Its Nutritional Properties Gelatin Gelatin is an edible protein which is mainly obtained by processing collagen which is the main constituent of skin, tendons, bone, etc. vertebrates. Skin and bone of animals like cow and/or fish is boiled in water and a solution is extracted from it by acid which will last for some days. Then, gelatin is obtained with processing this solution and drying it. It should be noted that gelatin is a solid, crispy, fragile and transparent substance which is in yellow color ranging from light to white yellow. Gelatin is odorless and tasteless, having 84 – 90 percent protein, 1 – 2 percent of mineral salts, and 8 – 15 percent water. Gelatin also lacks sugar, fat and additives. Gelatin is a food which is melted in temperature of body and refreshes a scent to mouth and is highly consumed in food industries, such as production of pastel and jelly products. Also, gelatin has adhesive properties, crystallization, formidability, emulsifier, etc. which is vastly used in food industry such as icy products, marshmallow, conserve meats, powdered soups, toffees, ice creams, etc. Proteins have been comprised of amino acids. Amino acids are classified into two necessary and unnecessary groups. Necessary amino acid is called to the amino acid which is provided through food diet and body is not able to make it. Proteins are comprised of 20 amino acids and nine of which are necessary amino acids while the rest are unnecessary amino acids. As a protein, gelatin has 84 to 90 percent protein and has 18 amino acids. The value of amino acids of glycine, praline, and hydroxyl praline is 23, 14 and 11 percent respectively. Each of the said amino acids includes unnecessary amino acids. Glycine In structural terms, glycine is the smallest amino acid which is considered as main source of nitrogen for making amino acids. In synthesis of biomolecules such as hemoglobin, keratin, bile salts, and hereditary molecules are used at the time of hungry. Glycine plays an important role in detoxification of chemicals such as food additives and drugs at liver. Glycine will cause increased s abdominal secretions and plays an important role in gastrointestinal tract diseases. Glycine interferes in healing wounds. In combination with arginine amino acid, glycine makes keratin which is a necessary material for provision of energy of muscle and healing of wounds. Glycine is required for making hemoglobin which is transferor of respiratory gases in body. Glycine causes increased secretions of stomach and plays an important therapeutic role in gastrointestinal tract. Studies show that deficiency of glycine in pregnant mothers can restrict children’s growth after birth, because, fetus growth needs to glycine is high. Praline and Hydroxyl Praline Praline amino acid is one of unnecessary amino acids but is some studies; it is observed that if praline is omitted from food diet, its value will decrease in blood. For this purpose, it is considered as necessary amino acid but its deficiency is rarely observed. It is proven that praline amino acid softens skin and prevents skin from wrinkling. Also, it is said that this amino acid along with vitamin “C” and lysine amino acid prevent vessels from obstructing. Gelatin and Bone Osteoporosis and inflammation of joints (arthritis) are two common bone-related diseases which different drugs and hormones such as crotons, estrogen, base phosphatases, and calcitonin, fluoride and par hormone derivatives are used for treatment of the diseases. Also, exercise, calcium supplement and vitamin “D” are used for treating the disease. In recent decades, nutritional supplements such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have been used for eradication of symptoms of these diseases. Clinical studies have proposed that collagen can be fruitful for treatment of the disease due to having a large value of amino acid. This effect is highly observed on femur bone. In other studies, it has been shown that injection of gelatin enhances calcium existing in blood circulation which indicates that bone is on the verge of construction. It should be noted that gelatin affects treatment of musculoskeletal system positively. Gelatin and Treatment of Wounds Chronic wounds like gangrene (diabetes wounds), infection, untreated wounds, etc. are of the complications of diabetes disease. In recent years, various research activities have been done in treatment of the complication but treatment has limited due to intolerable reactions and poisoning of diabetics. Due to having amino acids and unique peptides, gelatin can be effective with reduction of inflammatory responses and adjustment of body immune system in treatment of diabetes wounds. Also, gelatin is an anti- bleeding material which activates coagulated routes with getting contact to the damaged blood cells. Gelatin and Nail and Hair With age increase, nails, and hairs turn fragile and crack. With having a large amount of glycine amino acid, gelatin helps hair and mail to grow. It should be noted that glycine amino acid is an important amino acid which is important for making keratin available in hair and nail. Gelatin and Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract As a pyogenic material, gelatin enhances and increases flow of abdominal fluid and helps improve digestion and absorption it should be noted that pyogenic material is a protein which is digested in stomach and is turned into small pieces like peptide. Gelatin covers internal membrane of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Also, it is claimed that gelatin reduces intestinal inflammation of patients suffering from irritable intestinal syndrome. Gelatin and Liver Recent studies have shown that glycine amino acid in liver is used for detoxification of drugs and warding off hormones and bilious (bile) acids. General speaking, gelatin can help improve performance of liver due to having high amount of glycine. Other Effects of Gelatin In animal and human laboratory studies, it is shown that gelatin may provide necessary amino acids for making cartilage (main material for making skin). Also, gelatin can reconstruct damaged skin. Gelatin is absorbed rapidly and provides necessary amino acid for metabolism. In addition, gelatin has other effects on health.

See details
Principles of Enrichment of Milk with Vitamins Principles of Enrichment of Milk with Vitamins

Principles of Enrichment of Milk with Vitamins The history of enrichment of milk started as of early half a century ago. In the same direction, enrichment of milk with vitamin “D” was first reported as of 1923 and presently, milk enrichment is carried out with vitamins “A” and “D”. The history of milk enrichment started as of early half a half- century ago. In the same direction, enrichment of milk with vitamin “D” was first reported as of 1923 and presently, milk enrichment is carried out with vitamins “A” and “D”. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) in 1923 announced that amount of vitamin “D” added to milk is better not to exceed IU400 in each quart (equal to one liter). Introduction Milk is a nutrient substance. With enjoying all necessary 10 amino acids and also very high- quality protein, not only milk shares in total daily received energy, but also it contains necessary fatty acids, immunoglobulin and other micro foods. Although milk of goat, buffalo, sheep and camel is also consumed, cow milk is a predominant type in several countries in world. It should be noted that milk is used in fermented forms like cheese, yogurt (kefir), dough (sour yogurt drink) and butter as well. In the same direction, milk in industrial form is divided into two groups of liquid milk and powdered or dried milk. Content of Micro Nutrients in Milk: Milk is rich in calcium, vitamin “B2” and is a good source of vitamin “A”. Milk also is a weak source of vitamin “D”. Nevertheless, dependency on the change of food patterns in various seasons of year, some changes are observed in content of vitamins of milk as well. In summertime, cow is grazed and pastured with wet and fresh grasses while in wintertime, it is fed with warehoused dry fodder and forage. For example, vitamin “A” of fresh milk in U.S. is IU1800 – 600 /liter while vitamin “D” of milk is IU40- 5 /liter. It should be noted that warm milk is used by human being in order to prevent from risks threatening health of human with relation to pathogenic microorganism available in raw milk. In developing countries, major part of milk is produced by small cattle breeding houses and is sold to consumer/ customer directly. The thermal care which is common for liquid milk includes pasteurization of care with ultra heat or ultra heat temperature ( UHT ) and sterilization. To obtain powdered milk, fresh milk is first heated and then, it is dried into powder in spray, roll or cylindrical forms. These industrial processes eradicate some nutrients especially the vitamins which can be found naturally in milk. Moreover invigorating process, the nutrients, which are eradicated during milk processing operation, can be added to milk. In many countries, milk fat is exited industrially for producing low- fat or fatless milk. When milk fat is removed, solvable vitamins in fats will also be removed. Therefore, these vitamins can be substituted with invigoration or improvement process. Nutrients Added to Milk Milk enrichment with vitamins “A” and “D” is carried out by only limited countries. In some dairy industries based in U.S., milk is enriched with vitamin “C”, calcium, plus vitamins “A” and “D”. As a factor for improvement of color, beta-carotene is added to some milk byproducts such as butter. Powdered milk and favored powdered milk or seasonings are almost enriched with vitamins “A” and “D”, calcium and iron (folic acid). Special milk- based infants’ formulas and/or foods as substitutes to breastfeeding are enriched with a series of vitamins and minerals and other nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids. The powdered milks in Chile used in children’s supplementary nutrition are enriched with vitamins “C”, iron, copper and zinc. The nutrients added to milk depend on several factors such as milk consumption level, milk sensory specifications (flavor, taste and color), and stability of nutrients during milk preservation and processing stages. The liquid milk especially the milk producing cream is enriched with vitamins “A” and “D” with 5,000 and 500 international units/ liter. The technology of enriching milk is simple and all vitamins and minerals, which can be added to milk, are available in the form of powdered milk and vitamins solvable in fat in the form of oil. Usually, more than a nutrient may be added to milk and these nutrients are mixed with each other previously and can be turned out in unified form. The technology of enrichment of milk is very simple and all vitamins and minerals can be added to the milk, available in the form of powdered milk and vitamins solvable in fat in the form of oil. It should be noted that enrichment of liquid milk, vitamins solvable in fat can be added in two forms of dry or oily, provided that vitamins solvable in water and minerals are added directly to the liquid milk in dry form. Enrichment of liquid milk is carried out just before pasteurization process or Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT) operation. Of course, fair distribution of nutrients should be assured before heat treatment process. When vitamins are used in oily form, homogenization is necessary. Enrichment of Powdered Milk (Dried Milk Fortification) Although oily forms of nutrients can be added to the powdered milk, mixing powdered or dried forms of vitamin and minerals with the powdered milk can be considered as the simplest way of enrichment of powdered milk. Unlike liquid milk, dry or powdered milk can be enriched before and after heat treatment. Sprayed powdered milk is considered as the most applicable methods of enrichment of this type of milk. It should be noted that vitamins are susceptible and sensitive to temperature, light, humidity, moist, oxidation factors and revival with various grades. Recent progresses and advances in commercial production technology of vitamins have been improved with stability and have made capability of accordance with micronutrients possible. Generally speaking, minerals are less susceptible to chemical and physical factors. In the course of procession period and after a period of industrial heat treatment, most minerals and vitamins are preserved as much as 70- 100 percent at large but with the repetition of heat treatment, percentage of these nutrients are changed. Stability of most nutrients at liquid milk during storage operation is good but vitamin “C” which is analyzed or decomposed easily under the influence of light and oxygen is an exception to the said rule. Pasteboard packs can store nutrients better than plastic materials. Moreover, pasteboard packs are resistant against destructive effects, light, flavor and odor. In the same direction, enriched powdered milk, which is stored in environment temperature for a period of 24 months, can safeguard 90 100 percent of vitamins “E1″, “C”, “B6″, “B2″ and “B” during storage operation. If the powdered milk is stored for a period of five months, its 55- 75 percent of vitamin “A” will be reduced considerably. Various types of micronutrients of the powdered milk can be perished during storage and preservation operation. Given the said issue, storage of powdered milk is of paramount importance. To get rid of this problem, a suitable amount of these materials should be added to milk. Quality Control (QC) To ensure favorable amounts of micronutrients and before using them in final product, necessary tests should be repeated. For this aim, special methods and equipment should be accessed certainly. For unstable nutrients like vitamin “C”, accurate QC and plan should be taken into consideration. Vitamins “A” and “D” can be determined using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) quantitatively. This method is accurate and precise but its parts and equipment are expensive and needs to be manipulated by specialists and technicians. Spectrometric methods are cheap which can be supplied with fair and reasonable price in a way that working with them is rather easy and comfortable. It should be noted that quantitative methods for rest micronutrients include fluorometer method for vitamins “B1″ and “B2″. It should be noted that spectrophotometric method us for minerals like iron and calcium.

See details
Probiotics and Functional Foods Probiotics and Functional Foods

Probiotics and Functional Foods Summary Probiotics are defined as live microbial food component which are useful on human health. In other words, probiotics are beneficial for human health to a great extent. Most probiotic bacteria belong to the genus of bifid bacterium and lactobacillus bacteria. It should be noted that several studies have reported usefulness of probiotics on intestinal and abdominal diseases, antimicrobial activities, increased lactose metabolism, reduced blood cholesterol, stimulation of body immune system, anti- mutagenic properties, anti- cancer specifications, anti- diarrhea features, improvement of intestinal and abdominal diseases and stoppage of bacterium helicobacter pyrrole with adding the desired species to the food product. General speaking, probiotics are very important for health condition of human being as well. Nowadays, most certain probiotics are used in dairy products. Nevertheless, it should be noted that several raw materials have recently been studied comprehensively in line with the determination of their appropriateness for the production of new non- dairy probiotic microorganisms. Therefore, reviewing effects of probiotics on health condition of human being and application of probiotics in new and traditional dairy and non- dairy products (including fruit, vegetables, soya and meat) with probiotic potential is of the main objective of the present research. Keywords: Probiotic, Health, Lactobacillus, Bifid Bacteria, Functional Foods Introduction Probiotics are live microorganisms. Macrobiotics provides useful and beneficial effects for their host if distributed properly in host body. [1] The word “probiotics” was raised in 20th century developments according to a hypothesis put forward by a Russian Noble Prize Laureate Elie Metchnikoff. He stated that consumption of fermented dairy products is one of the main causes of health and longevity of villagers, nomads and urban dwellers. [2] In other words, consumption of fermented dairy products has been cited as the main reason for health of farmers and villagers. He was of the opinion that lactobacillus affect intestinal micro flora positively during consumption and also reduces harmful microbial activities extremely. [1, 2 and 3] In general, probiotics are called as bacteria friendly or good bacteria. [4] Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects to humans and other animals. Introduction of the concept is generally attributed to Nobel Prize recipient Élie Metchnikoff, who in 1907 suggested that “the dependence of the intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes”. A significant expansion of the potential market for probiotics has led to higher requirements for scientific substantiation of putative beneficial effects conferred by the microorganisms. Studies on the medical benefits of probiotics have yet to reveal a cause-effect relationship, and their medical effectiveness has yet to be conclusively proven for most of the studies conducted thus far. Commonly claimed benefits of probiotics include the decrease of potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms; the reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort; the strengthening of the immune system; the improvement of the skin’s function; the improvement of bowel regularity; the strengthening of the resistance to cedar pollen allergens; the decrease in body pathogens; the reduction of flatulence and bloating; the protection of DNA; the protection of proteins and lipids from oxidative damage; and the maintaining of individual intestinal microbiota in subjects receiving antibiotic treatment. Scientific evidence to date has been insufficient to substantiate any anti-disease claims or health benefits from consuming probiotics Probiotics-based foods are a group of foods improving health which are called as “Functional Foods” and include live probiotics compounds in a sufficient amount and provides health based on nutrition. [6 and 7] Therefore, they [probiotics] produce positive effects after being consumed. Probiotic microorganisms generally have human or animal origin. [1] Most probiotic bacteria belong to the genus of bifid bacterium and lactobacillus. It should be noted that species belonging to genus of lactocucuss, enterococcus, Saccharomyces and propionic bacterium have been introduced as “probiotics” due to their improving effects on health condition of people. [1, 3 and 4] Bifid bacteria generally live in human and animal intestine and in some cases, they can be observed in mouth and excrement of human being as well. pH and proper growth temperature of bifid bacteria stand at between 6 – 7 and 37 – 41 degrees of centigrade respectively. Some of bifid bacteria, which are used as probiotic, include bifid bacterium adolescents, bifid bacterium longsome, bifid bacterium infancies and bifid bacterium brio. Proper growth temperature of lactobacillus stands at above 45 degrees of centigrade. Although their proper growth temperature have been reported 35 – 40 degrees of centigrade, these bacteria develop and grow in partial acidity environment in pH 4.6 – 5.4 degrees of centigrade. The most important bacteria of this group include: lactobacillus, leuconostics, lactobacillus, streptococcus and pediococcus. Most bacteria, which are used in preparation of probiotic (such as lactobacillus and bifid bacteria), are isolated from sample excrement of human in order to increase compatibility with micro flora of human intestine and also increased chance of its survival. With relation to probiotics, it is argued that these bacteria should be alive in order to produce positive and useful results. Moreover, these bacteria should be accessible in high concentration, for example 08 – 109 per each gram. Also, these bacteria should be found alive in gastric juice of human in order to reach small and large intestine. Hereunder are some factors which affect survival and activity of probiotics in alimentary system of consumer: added probiotic physiological state (growth or logarithmic phase), degree of consumption of probiotic based on concentration at time, physical situation in the course of preservation of product, chemical combinations of the product which probiotics are added to it, pH, hydro activity, carbon, nitrogen, minerals and content of oxygen, possible interactional effect between probiotics and starter bacteria [1] Probiotics and Health The improving health and antimicrobial specifications of lactobacillus and probiotics can be related to the production of nutrient compounds and antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, peroxide hydrogen, and bacitracin. Reduction of pH, which is generated in intestine due to the organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), has destructing and deterrent effects on pathogenic bacteria. [1] Table 1 shows a summary of effects of probiotics on human health. Probiotics and Functional Foods Today, most probiotics are used in dairy byproducts. [3] Hereunder are considered as most common probiotic dairy products in world: various types of yogurts and other dairy products (such as fermented butter yogurt drinks in Finland, different lactic acid bacteria drinks, fruit juice and mixture of probiotic milks (fermented), fresh and ripped probiotic cheese. Improvement and progress of natural defensive system of body is the most common claim of health for probiotic dairy foods. [3] Table 1: Effects of Probiotics on Health [2] Fermented milk is considered as a carrier for absorption of probiotics and should contain a great number of probiotics. Many of probiotic races are not operated well in milk and require backup races such as staphylococcus, thermophiles and lactobacillus. It should be noted that fermented probiotic milks are generated by various lactic acid bacteria such as bifid bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus, special casein lactobacillus race and subspecies of bifid bacterium are considered as the most common probiotic bacteria in production of fermented milk. These bacteria and other probiotics enjoy capability of activity in intestine. It should be noted that yogurt’s traditional starters (including staphylococcus, thermophiles and lactobacillus) are not able to grow in intestine. [9, 10] Yogurt and other microbial cultures and probiotic bacteria improve digestion of lactose in fermented and non- fermented milk products and reduces symptom of non- toleration among individuals diagnosed with bad digestion of lactose. These useful effects are related to beta lacto sides enzyme of microbe present in milk fermented products which delays the passage time from intestine and will leave positive impacts on performance and function of intestine and micro flora and finally, will reduce sensitivity toward symptoms of disease. [11] It is worth mentioning of lactobacillus cells were stabilized on pieces of fruit (apple and pear) and stabilized bio catalyzer was used as a supplement in production of probiotic cheese. The pieces of fruit are considered as an effective protective for survival of casein lactobacillus cells and produced cheese enjoys top and acceptable sensory taste. [12] Encapsulated probiotic bacteria can be used in many dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, skimmed cream, and frozen dairy desserts. In capsulated form, probiotics are protected from influence of bacteriophages and improper environment such as cold and gastric juice. [13] Fruits and Vegetables Nutritional and biological potential of fruit juices and vegetables have turned them into food products with different applications in preservation of balance of organisms. In the same direction, fruit juices and vegetables have satisfactory results in prevention and also treatment of cardiovascular diseases due to the content of potassium salt, bio flavin, vitamins, etc. Lack of fat for treatment of the aforementioned diseases has given salient advantages to these types of product. Fruitful effects of fruits and vegetables can be increased due to the biochemical treatments such as lactic fermentation. [14] Generally speaking, based on probiotic studies’ reports, growth and ability of bio cells in fruits and vegetables depend on type of used bacteria, final acidity and concentration of lactic acid and also ascetic acid of final product. It should b e noted that probiotic enjoys a favorable and satisfactory potential for application as a functional supplement in fruit products due to their effective tolerance to the acidity environment although using physical obstacles has been recommended “incompatible” despite external situation . [1] Several studies have studied application of probiotics at fruits and vegetables. In natural fermented olive, lactobacillus casein has been identified as a dominant type. Yon, et al. studied appropriateness of tomato juice for production of a probiotic product using lactobacillus acidophilus, lactobacillus planetarium, and lactobacillus casein and lactobacillus delborooki. Yon, et al. also studied the same bacteria in terms of appropriateness of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice. Young et al. found out that lactobacillus acidophilus and lactobacillus planetarium can use beet juice for growth. Species related to lactobacillus (lactobacillus planetarium) and locknuts (locknuts mesenteries) are the most common bacteria conducting natural fermentation of vegetables’ lactic acid. But lactobacillus Para casein, casein, lactobacillus delborooki and lactobacillus brose have also reported with the same result. [1] Cereals, corns and soya Seeds of corns and cereals are considered as one of the most important sources of protein, carbohydrate vitamin, minerals and fiber for people across the world. Moreover, seeds of corn and cereals are considered as one of sources of indigestible carbohydrates. In addition to owning useful physiological effects, seeds of cereals can lead to instigation of growth of lactobacillus and bifid bacteria which are present as probiotic in intestine. Corns and cereals contain solution fibers in water (such as beta gluten and arabinoxilan), oligosaccharides (such as galactic and frecto oligosaccharides) and resistant starches. Therefore, they have been proposed for the execution of application of probiotics.  Types of lactobacillus have been identified as complex microorganisms which require fermentable carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins Group B, nucleic acid and minerals for growth. Therefore, fermentation of corn and cereals is considered as an inexpensive and cheap method to support growth of useful microorganisms. A great number of nondairy fermented cereals and corn products have been produced in the course of history such as tarhana and kishk. . Mixture of milk, corn containing lactobacillus has probiotic specifications; even tarhanas is considered as one of the oldest probiotic foods. Wheat, barley, corn, rice and soybeans are considered as main cereals used in production of fermented foods. [1] Meat Meat has been considered as a unique carrier for probiotics. Buffer capacity of meat may be related to the high pH of small environment of bacteria remained on surface of meat. Moreover, meat has been identified as a protection for lactobacillus against killing action of gall bladder. [1] There are advantages and disadvantages on matrix of fermented meat which are suitable for carrying probiotic bacteria. Since matrix of fermented meat has not usually been heat treated and/or has been treated partially, they can lead to the increased biodiversity of probiotic bacteria in the course of alimentary tract. In contrast, biodiversity of bacteria may be reduced due to high concentration of salt used for raising meat and hydro activity and low ph. [5] Major fermented products of meat include fermented sausages and also fermented fish. Lactobacillus races, which are mainly used as starters of meat, include lactobacillus casein, lactobacillus Cervantes, lactobacillus bentosoos, lactobacillus Saki, pediocuccus, lactic acid, and pediococcus pentasoccus. [1] Result and Discussion Probably, probiotics are necessary for nutrition of human more than any other nutrient or food and its nutritional consultation and also its daily consumption should be recommended. Although dairy products are the most common nutritional matrix for probiotic bacteria, it is possible that probiotic foods should be provided from various matrixes such as fermented and non- fermented foods. Generally speaking, dire need to subsequent studies to ensure of useful effects of certain probiotics is necessary for human health.

See details
Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance

Lactose Intolerance Summary: Lactose intolerance is an inability to hydrolyze milk sugar (lactose) which mainly occurs due to deficiency of lactase enzyme. Lactose intolerance is affected by age and genetic factors and increases with increasing age. Lactose intolerance is divided into three major classes: primary lactose intolerance, secondary lactose intolerance, and inherent deficiency of lactase enzyme. The clinical symptoms include: stomachaches, stomach muscles contractions, flatulence, and tympanites. Lactose intolerance differs from allergy to milk. This inability in hydrolysis of milk sugar is identified in different individuals by means of various tests such as lactose intolerance test, hydrogen breath test, urine acidity test, and so on. In general, lactose is present in two categories of dairy and non-dairy products. Todays, the patients suffering from this disease are recommended to avoid consuming milk and dairy products with high lactose content and instead use other dairy products like yoghurt that have negligible amount of lactose. Such individuals can also benefit from enzyme delactosed products, lactose supplement pills, foods enriched with calcium and vitamins and other alternative products. Key Words : Milk, Lactose Intolerance, Lactase Enzyme Introduction While carbohydrates constitute a major portion of our diets, lactose merely account for 10% of the carbohydrate in the diet of adults [1]. Lactose intolerance is an inability in metabolism of lactose, the sugar found in milk and other dairy products [1, 2, 3 & 4]. Lactase is an enzyme which is produced in our body only in the small intestine and its presence is necessary for digesting lactose. The people whose bodies do not produce sufficient lactase suffer from lactase deficiency and are not able to digest lactose [5]. History: Lactose intolerance along with chronic diarrhea was first described in 1958 by Durand in infants, and at the same year, Houlzel et al. (1958) stated that lack of lactose absorption is the cause of patients’ diarrhea and use of lactose tolerance test in temporary malabsorption of sacarids during diarrhea of infants was demonstrated in 1962. The first observation of lactose desorption was depicted in 1963 for the first time [1 & 6]. Cause: If sufficient lactase for digestion of the lactose present in food does not exist, lactose will remain in intestine and causes water retention by the small intestine. As a consequence, the person might experience tympanites and stomachaches usually 30 minutes after eating lactose-bearing foods [5]. Disaccharides are unable to get absorbed and pass through the wall of small intestine into the blood circulation. As a result, in absence of lactase, the lactose of the consumed food remains intact and enters the large intestine. Activity of intestinal bacteria quickly leads to metabolism of lactose and large amount of gas is generated as a result of fermentation (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane) giving rise to a series of stomachaches including stomach muscles contraction and tympanites [1]. Symptoms Fundamental clinical symptoms including nausea, muscular contraction, tympanites, diarrhea, and flatulence are dependent on extent and intensity of lactose intolerance [1, 2, 3, 4 & 5]. Lactose intolerance is divided in three following classes: Primary lactose intolerance: occurs when an offspring is stopped from receiving mother’s milk in societies where consumption of dairy products is not prevalent. This state occurs in many Asian and African countries. Secondary lactose intolerance: results from intestinal diseases caused by intestinal parasites, celiac disease, surgery or radiation. Once the damage of the intestine cells improves, these cells will regain the ability to generate lactase. In certain cases, generation of lactase enzyme might be stopped for ever [1 & 5]. Inherent deficiency of lactase enzyme: a genetic disorder which prevents from enzymatic production of lactase and is diagnosed in infants at the beginning of birth [1]. This sort of lactose intolerance is rarely observed [5]. Many individuals who have reported problems associated with lactose intake do not suffer from lactose intolerance [1]. Lactose intolerance is affected by age and genetic factors and is intensified by increasing age [4]. Conventional Tests in Diagnosing Lactose Intolerance 1.Lactose intolerance test                                  2.Hydrogen breath test Urine acidity measurement test 4.Living tissue macroscopic test Lactose intolerance test : first, a blood sample is taken from the patient. This blood samples is taken from the tip of patient’s finger for measuring blood sugar. The patient then drinks solution of milk. If the patient is able to hydrolyze the patient’s sugar, his/her blood sugar content increases after one hour. If the blood sugar content doesn’t increase, it is a sign that lactose hasn’t been decomposed into glucose and galactose. Hydrogen breath test : the patient is normally advised to avoid taking foods that contain bran in order to reach the lowest level in breathing. An initial sample of patient’s breath is taken and then s/he then drinks a solution of milk. Patient’s breath hydrogen content is measured at 15 minutes, 30 minutes until 2 hours afterwards. If hydrogen content in patient’s breath does not increase significantly, his/her body is able to hydrolyze lactose. In case of failure in lactose hydrolysis, its metabolism is accomplished by large intestine bacteria and amount of hydrogen gas rises. The same test is done for carbon dioxide. Urine acidity measurement test: As other tests are difficult and almost impossible to carry out on offspring, this test is used for diagnosing lactose intolerance in neonates. Taking into account that large intestine bacteria produce lactic acid and other acids as well as gas production, these compounds can be detected in neonates’ urines and presence or absence of lactose intolerance in them can be inferred. Microscopic test of living tissue : this method is for special cases in which samples are directly taken from patient’s intestine. Differences between lactose intolerance and allergy to milk Allergy to milk happens because of allergy to milk proteins whereas lactose intolerance is associated with inability to decompose lactose in the digestion system. 2. Allergy to milk is often observed in babies whereas lactose intolerance is common in higher ages. 3. Allergy to milk not only affects digestion system but also influences skin and respiratory system. Lactose intolerance mainly affects digestion system and leads to symptoms such as tympanites and diarrhea. 4. Allergy to milk can threaten life, but lactose intolerance is not dangerous though disturbing. Control Mechanism of Lactose Intolerance As of today, no methodology has been developed for producing stable lactase. Bradner & Hargrove proposed four rules and principles for this respect: 1-Prevention from consumption of lactic diets; 2-use of substitutes for replacement and absorption of nutritious compounds; 3-adjustment of absorbed calcium; utilization of enzymatic substitutes [1] Lactose is mainly present in two large sets of foods: Dairy Products : major dairy products including milk, cheese, yoghurt, butter, sour cream, ice cream, kefir, and dairy beverages [1]. Nutritional value of dairy products : Prevention from milk consumption aimed at preventing from lactose intolerance symptoms can lead to calcium deficiency in the diet. Dairy products are the main source of calcium in human’s diet. Calcium is required for building strong bones, teeth and other essential roles in body. Lactose enhances absorption of calcium, phosphor, magnesium, and zinc. Milk protein has a high quality and is rich in water-soluble vitamin riboflavin. Other vitamins and minerals are also found in milk but at a lesser amount [5]. Table 2: Examples of lactose level in different dairy products [1] Dairy Product Lactose content (grams) Simple and low-fat yoghurt (240 ml) 5 Low-fat yoghurt (240 ml) 11 Swiss cheese (28 grams) 1 Ice-cream (120 ml) 6 Cottage cheese (120 ml) 3-2 More suitable dairy products for patients suffering from lactose intolerance Unskimmed milk: the fat content of milk delays stomach depletion, and as a result, the milk lactose will enter the intestine gradually. Coffee-milk: the coffee added to milk enhances the activity of lactase enzyme, restrains the activity of bacteria generating gas as a result of lactose fermentation, decelerates stomach depletion, and consequently, leads to improvement of milk tolerance in such patients. Yoghurt: yoghurt is better accepted in the respective individuals due to possession of acid lactic bacteria. In addition, yoghurt regulates secretion of stomach acid and causes stimulation of lactase enzyme secretion cells of the intestine. Yoghurt leaves the stomach later due to its semi-solid state helping better tolerance compared to milk [4]. Dairy beverages: among such beverages, whey and yoghurt juice which contain more than 60-90% of milk ingredients besides less lactose [11 & 12]. Non-dairy Products When words such as whey, whey, dry milk powder, and so on are used in the labels of products, those products do contain lactose. Actually, lactose is considered as a commercial additive which is used for flavoring, texture improvement, and adhesive properties. Lactose is present in foods like processed meat (sausages, hot dogs, etc.), meat juice powder, margarine, breakfast cereals, French fries, bakery and confectionary products, frozen desserts, instant products such as instant cafes, dried fruits, medicines, fast foods, food substitutes (soups), and protein supplements [1 & 5]. Byproducts Products with low lactose content or free from lactose have been produced in dairy industries for the consumption of lactose intolerant patients. Lactose-free milk is produced by passing the milk through fixated enzymes over a carrier. In Finland, the products with label HYLA have hydrolyzed lactose. In another method, bacteria such as lactobacillus and acidophilus are used for milk fermentation, similar to the method deployed in yogurt. Herbal milks and their derivatives are sources absolutely free from lactose (soybean milk, rice milk, almond milk, nut milk, pistachio milk, barley milk, cannabis milk and so forth) [1]. Lactase Substituent Supplements Enzymatic supplements of lactose like the lactase produced in human’s small intestine are generated by aspergillus fungi. Beta-galactasoidase enzymes in tablet form are available in different countries around the world at different dosages without any prescription. This enzyme acts effectively in acidic environment such as the conditions in human’s intestine. Unfortunately, high acidity causes denaturation of this enzyme. Therefore, it shall not be used in an empty stomach. Furthermore, the enzyme will have no effect if it doesn’t reach the small intestine on time. The respective enzyme is also generated by Kluyveromyces yeasts. The enzymes generated by this yeast need long time for operating and are also destroyed in mild acidic environment. This genus is less common than the enzyme produced by aspergillus and is mainly utilized for producing low-lactose products. Lactase enzymatic supplements have an advantage to stopping consumption of dairy products as there is no need to add calcium for supplying adequate calcium especially in children [1 & 5]. Discussion and Conclusions Today, different methods have been provided for lactose intolerant patients to benefit from dairy products. Devising more novel methods requires further research in this scope. References Lactose intolerance. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 9 March 2009. 2) Bowen, R., Lactose Intolérance (Lactase Non-Persistance). Pathophysiology of  the Digestive System . Colorado State University. 2006. Improved lactose digestion and intolerance among African-American adolescent girls fed a dairy-rich diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association . 2000. 02-03. Sandra Bastin, M.N.S ., lactose intolerance. Coopérative extension service, University of Kentucky. 1997. Tuula H. Vesa, Marteau, P. and Korpela R., lactose intolerance. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2000. 19(2): 165-175. Firouz Ezhieh, Hassan Elyasi, Lactose Intolerance, Post-Specialization Dissertation, Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Medical Sciences, 1993 7) Carroccio A, Montalto G, Cavera G, Notarbatolo A . 1998. Lactose intolerance and self-reported milk intolerance: relationship with lactose maldigestion and nutrient intake. Lactose Deficiency Study Group. J Am Coll Nutr 17 (6): 631–6. 8) Heyman, M. B., 2006.  Lactose intolerance in infants, children and adolescents.  American Academy of Pediatrics, 118 (3): 1279-1286. 9) Rusynyk RA, Lactose intolerance. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 2001. 101: 2-10. Ross G. and Bennett L. E., Cow’s Milk Allergy: A Complex Disorder. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2005. 24(6): 582–591 McGee, H. They Do the Work, You Reap the Yogurt. The Curious Cook. 2009. Mathur B. N. and SHAHANI K. M., Use of Total Whey Constituents for Human Food, J Dairy Sci. 1979. 62: 99-105.

See details
Whey Drinks Whey Drinks

Whey Drinks Abstract: Whey is a byproduct obtained during milk coagulation by means of acid, rennet enzyme, or physiochemical processes used in cheese production. Whey embraces approximately half of solid ingredients of milk including nutrients like lactose, protein, and minerals. During recent years, whey application has emerged as a necessity considering the need for loweing environmental contaminations and utilization of accessible nutrients for feeding human population suffering from malnutrition. Presence of significant nutritional compositions with tremendous practical properties leads to rising use of whey in different aspects. The present paper analyzes application of whey as a basis for production of different drinks. Key Words : Whey, Drink, Nutritional Value Introduction Whey is a greenish yellow liquid which is separated from milk clot following milk coagulation by proteolytic acid or enzyme during dewatering stage and contains between 60-90% of milk constituents depending on production procedure. In cheese production from milk, considerable amount of whey is acquired, often discharged into wastewaters. The issue of whey consumption in milk industry and dairy products is greatly significant. Whey possesses high nutritional value and has been in use since medieval times as medicine in treatment of many chronic diseases. Currently, in the light of establishment and development of cheese production factories in the country, millions of tons of whey are produced annually. These byproducts are not utilized and enter the environment resulting in contamination (Pin, 1943). Compositions of Whey: According the definition of International Milk Federation, cheese water contains lipid-soluble matters like vitamins, casein-associated colloid minerals and also aqueous phase of milk including lactose, soluble proteins, soluble minerals, organic acids, vitamins, and enzymes. Whey has high biological value and contains large amount of amino acid cysteine, known as a valuable and high-quality food for human consumption (Pin, 1943). Whey Environmental Issues BOD of whey is around 50,000 ppm which is regarded as a highly polluted wastewater. Therefore, its disposal without biological purification or recycling of its organic matters would contaminate the environment. If whey is distributed over agriculture soil, its salts will prevent from growth of plants. Chemical and biological operations aimed at utilizing these byproducts or purifying them requires great deal of expenses. And in many countries, the high price of cheese is due to treatment or elimination costs of whey (Mayorla & Castillo, 1984). Based on the abovementioned discussions, not only products having nutritional and medicinal values can be produced with application of whey in drink production but also the resulting contaminations can be to a great extent reduced. Production of Fruit-flavored Beverage from Whey: The most inexpensive way to prepare a beverage based on whey is collection of whey from cheese-making vat, pasteurization, alleviation of bad smell if demanded, adding flavor, and packing (Matour & Shahani, 1979). Graph (1898) designed a simple process in which cheese is heated, aerated and filled with CO 2 and formaldehyde. Julies et al. (1913) described a healthy and nutritious beverage from whey. Whey is decolored and deodorized by charcoal. And in the subsequent stage, acid, salt, and CO 2 are added for production of final beverage. He realized that flavor of whey especially acidic cheese is more compatible citrus flavors, in particular orange juice. Later, Kastovaskaia (1969) prepared a product called “Detskii” via adding pasteurized sugar juice and carrot juice to deproteinized whey. The product is then pasteurized and packed. Its total solid matter was at least 20%, sugar content was 15%, and maximal acidity was 28.125 Dornic degrees. Kosmina (1966) produced two beverages with different flavors of whey; the first one a compound with lemon flavor and orange, and the other one containing 25% tomato juice, salt, and citric acid. Both compounds are largely acidized and had 0.3 weight percent carbon dioxide and were able to preserve for 5-7 days at 20 ̊C. With progress in whey beverage production industry, 25-40% of whey was mixed with grape juice and 7-20% of fruit juices in the University of Arizona. A combination of whey, grape and peach juice received an average score of 5.9 at a Hedonic scale between 1 and 7 (Holsinger et al. 1974). The product assessed in the University of Michigan State was considered as a breakfast meal, a combination of sweet or acidic whey and orange juice. A volume of fresh concentrated orange juice was mixed and packed with four volumes of deodorized cheese. The final product contained 0.7-1 % of protein. The beverage could be also gaseous and used as a sweet nutritious drink (Holsinger et al. 19740). Following success of non-alcoholic drinks such as Rivella (a whey product) in Europe, some attempts started in USA for producing beverages with fruit flavor, as well as carbonated, alcoholic, and high-protein drinks. Carbonated beverage with orange flavor was produced in 1971 and distributed in Brazilian stores. This product contains 1.5% whey protein derived from whey via inverse osmosis. Whey can be used in the production of beverage with fruit flavor when it is not coagulated at high acidity (Matour & Shahani, 1979). To produce newer flavors, beverages containing 60-90% of whey and 10% of raspberry porridge with 20% of natural peach porridge received an acceptable score from the examiners. The highest score was given to acidic whey beverage with orange juice flavor acidized by citric acid (Holsinger et al., 1974). In 1974, a cheddar whey based beverage was formulated in Mississippi State University. This product was prepared by blending whey, sugar, orange concentrate, citric acid, and other additives for producing a product with pH = 3.8 and dry matter of 16.5% in the final beverage and persistence period of minimum 15 days at 5, 10, or 22 ̊ C. 956 consumers from all age groups tested the beverage; 76.5% described the beverage as acceptable (Holsinger et al. 1974). Subsequently, Holsinger et al. (1974) analyzed a new beverage based on whey designated “freshi”. The respective product contained more than 50% of pure whey. Sugar, water, natural orange juice, lemon, and grape juices were added as well. Whey mixture was heated at 90 ̊C and packed under aseptic conditions in 250 ml tetra packs. Preservation period was determined to be 6 months without refrigerating. Whey powder replaced whey by the course of time. Kasi Kouski (1987) demonstrated that an acceptable beverage can be obtained with combination of more than 6 percent of acidic whey in restored frozen orange juice. Acidic whey powder with a 6% content has a completely noticeable salty taste. When its amount is decreased to 4%, the evaluators described the product’s taste as excellent. The mixture was packed and frozen at -25 ̊C. After one month of preservation, the restored beverage had the freshness properties of the original product. At 6% concentration of whey, the color of the respective nutritious beverages was acceptable. Color variation was very little or didn’t exist in the beverages derived from orange, lemon, pineapple, and grape juices at 4% level of whey powder. At around 6% of whey powder, the beverages derived had a crimson-purple color in comparison with dark red color of restored grape juice concentrate. The beverage acquired from orange juice was lowly sweet. Kasi Kouski (1987) in another study figured out that the outlet whey from vat shall be skimmed in order to protect kaymak formation and then pasteurized in order to prevent from formation of additional lactic acid and growth of contaminant microorganisms. In the present research, a commercial powder was also designed to be normally used as a restored beverage and had a good taste and consisted of the following components: sugar, whey with lowered contents of lactose and minerals, citric acid, monobasic acid, phosphate, lecithin, dextrin, sodium chloride, vitamin C, synthetic flavors and suitable vitamins. Acidic whey powder is very compatible with an acidic beverage and the combination of demineralized acidic whey powder with fruit juice might probably cause problems. Matour and Shahani (1979) conducted researches in which the whey lactose added to foods acted as a flavor and color carrier and enhancer of oral perception. Solid whey powder together with slight amounts of gelatin acts as a new compound that can retain oil, lipid, and flavor two times of its own weight. These properties can be specifically used in non-watery products. Ravest (2003) analyzed the compositions of whey and their usages. In his analyses, he realized that application of whey in other products leads to improvement of their nutritional values. The simplest way in applying whey is pasteurization and combination of whey with fruit juices like mango, blood orange, and so on. To prevent from precipitation of proteins, pectins and other surface active compounds were applied. Sugar and other synthetic sweeteners were also used. This product was sold as a healthy, low-fat, vitalizing, and energetic beverage in Europe at a price even higher than milk. In analysis of whey properties as a byproduct of cheese production, Buckler et al. (2005) introduced sensitivity of whey to heat as a fundamental property of whey proteins in whey process industry and beverage preparation from whey. The respective protein is denatured during thermal process depending on the intensity of the heat and protein coagulation develops in the production of heat-treated beverage. Pectin leaves a positive effect on thermal resistance of whey proteins. Mohebbi and Najafi (2004) investigated optimization of production, persistence, and quality of fruit-flavored whey beverages in which 27 beverage varieties were prepared using three concentrate types (orange, cherry, and grape) at three levels (3, 4, and 5%) and 3 sugar concentrations (5, 10, and 15%). Based on the results of the respective research, the optimal conditions in production of orange-flavored whey beverage was achieved using 3% of orange concentrate, 10% sugar, and with persistence time of at least 3 months at refrigerator temperature and 6 weeks at ambient temperature with acceptable sensory and microbial quality. Abdolmaleki et al. (2004) analyzed the possibility of benefiting from whey in beverage production via its fermentation by means of kefir microflora, where different proportions of microbial culture broth were used. The results of the respective research indicated that mint essence is the best one with regard to color, flavor, and odor. And the samples resulting from inoculation of lactic and acetobacter bacteria (3%) and yeasts (2%) were chosen as desirable products in terms of quality and public satisfaction. References Abdolmaleki, F. (2004), Possibility to use whey in producing beverage via its fermentation by kefir microflora; Master Thesis, Agriculture University of Tabriz Mohebbi, M & M.B.H. Najafi, 2004, Optimization of Production Conditions, Persistence time, and Quality of Fruit-flavored Whey Beverage; SID Scientific Website 18 (2): 1-10 Moghziani: http://taghziye.blogpars.com/ October 27 th 2008 4) Basim Abu-Jdayil and Hazim Mohameed, 2002; Experimental and modelling studies of the flow properties of concentrated yoghurt as affected by the storage time; J. Of  Food Engineering 52: 359-365. 5) Beucler Janine ­ , Drake Maryanne and Foegeding E. Allen .2005. Design of a Beverage from Whey Permeate . J. Of Food Science 70( 4): 277-285. 6) Graeff, F. W. H. 1898. Effervescent milk beverage and method of making same. united states patent : 602-362. 7) Hazim A. Mohameed, Basim Abu-Jdayil and Ali Al-Shawabkeh .2004. Effect of solid concentration on the rheological properties of Labneh (concentrated yoghurt) produced from sheep milk. J. Of  Food Engineering 61: 347-352. 8) Holsinger, V. H., Posati, L. P.  and Devilbiss, E. D. 1974. Whey Beverage. Dairy Products Laboratory 19118: 849-859 9) Jolles, A. 1913. Manufacture of salutary drink from dairy residues. U.S. patent 73: 135. 10) Kosikowski, F. V. 1987. Nutritional Beverages from Acid Whey Powder. J. Of Dairy Science 51(8): 1299-1301. 11) Kosikowski, F. V. 1987. Whey Utilization and Whey Products. J. Of Dairy Science 62: 1149- 1160. 12) Kustovskaya, N. V. 1969. Beverage “Detskii”. Moloch. Prom. 30(1): 33. 13) Kuz’mina, S. 1966. Carbonated beverages from whey. Moloch. Prom. 27(4): 28. 14) Maiorella, B.L and F.J. Ccastillo. 1984. Ethanol, Biomas and Enzyme production for whey waste abatement, process biochemistry, 157-161. 15) Mathur, B. N. and Shahani, K. M. 1979. Use of Total Whey Constituents for Human Food. J. Of Dairy Science 62: 99-105. 16) Official Methods Of Analysis, AOAC. 2005. 17)  Reust, H. 2003. whey-to valuable too pour down the drain…. Cleaner Production Centers EI Salvador & G uatemala . 18) Pien, J. 1943. Use of serum from cheese factories and lacto in nutrition. Lait, 23:193. 19) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. 1985. American Public Health Association, New York, NY 20) Tamime, A. Y. and R. K. Robinson 2000. Yoghurt Science and Tennology, Woodhead Publishing Limited . 21) Varghese, J. and M. Haridas 2007. Prospects of Jackfruit Blend Yoghurt Whey; Word J. O. Dairy&Food Science 2(1): 35-37. 22) Yamani, M. I. 1993. Yoghurt whey medium for food-borne yeasts. Wiley Inter Science 28(1): 111-6

See details
A Glance at Milk from Quran Point of View A Glance at Milk from Quran Point of View

A Glance at Milk from Quran Point of View Using animal milk dates back to prehistory area and also the time when animal domesticated by human. In Holy Book, milk is manifestation of cleanness, freshness, truth and life- giving and revitalizing symbol. Both milk and honey is manifestation of fertility and frequency of bleedings. “Milk” in Holy Quran: وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ فِي الْأَنْعَامِ لَعِبْرَةً نُسْقِيكُم مِمَّا فِي بُطُونِهِ مِن بَيْنِ فَرْثٍ وَدَمٍ لَّبَناً خَالِصاً سَائِغاً لِلشَّارِبِينَ “There are good lessons for you when you think to the existence and nature of animals. We offer you to drink pure and fresh milk of animals from their stomachs and from among myriads of digested foods.” (Makarem Shirazi, 1992) In this verse, the Holy Quran has said: “Milk is produced from the food digested in body. The digested food is turned into blood and then, milk is created from blood, which has neither blood color nor taste and flavor of blood. This act i.e. turning blood to milk has been accepted by all researchers and also they have confirmed it unanimously.” Also, the Almighty God considers “milk” as a heavenly drink of paradise: «مَثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ فِيهَا أَنْهَارٌ مِنْ ماءٍ غَيْرِ آسِنٍ وَأَنْهارٌ مِنْ لَبَنٍ لَمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ طَعْمُهُ…» (محمد/15) All believers and pious have been promised to drink milk in gutters and brooks of paradise with transparent water without any taste change. There is a narration in interpretation of Al-Mizan: “When grass is entered stomach of animal, its bottom part is called “surging”, its middle part is called “milk” and its upper part is called “blood”. Blood is run in vessels, vascular, and milk at breast and surging remain in stomach. Therefore, milk comes to breast purely and is not mixed with any material.” Some main elements of milk, which transform milk, are not of milk properties; rather, their origin is due to contents of intestine. Stating that food is turned into blood and blood is turned into milk, is a simple common subject. From scientific point of view, it should be said that milk is a blood product which has absorbed elements and materials from contents of tripe (paunch) Milk in Traditions and Narrations The Holy Prophet of Islam Hazrat Muhammad (S) said: “Drinking milk is manifestation of belief and credence. Milk is bestowed to you. Milk removes temperature from your body. As your finger wards off sweat and perspiration from forehead, drinking g milk will enhance power of thinking and varnish your genius and talent and removes amnesia and oblivion.” The Holy Prophet of Islam Hazrat Muhammad said: “The Almighty God did not send any pain and agony, unless, a treatment method has also been sent. Milk of cow can treat any pain and ache.” Elsewhere in his remarks, the Holy Prophet of Islam Hazrat Muhammad said: “Cow milk has been bestowed to you. Milk of cow heals any pain and ache.” Imam Ali (AS) said: “Drinking milk can heal any pain except death.” Elsewhere in his remarks, Imam Ali (AS) said: “Cow milk heals and acts as a medicine and drug.” Imam Sadiq (AS) said: “Cow milk is haler of any diseases.” A person came with Imam Sadiq (AS) and said: “O’ my dear Imam, I feel weakness in my body.” At this time, Imam said to him: “I recommend you to drink milk, because, milk helps meat to grow and strengthen bone.” Also, the Imam said: “I searched nothing except milk for healing sore throat.” Drinking milk does not incur any harm to human body. If any harm is observed, it is due to other things that are eaten along with milk.one person came to Imam Sadiq and said: “When I drank milk, I felt fainted and became ill.” In response to his question, Imam Sadiq said: “Milk does not hurt you. Certainly, you have drunk milk with other thing and this food has made you ill. In general, drinking milk is harmless.” Breast Milk / Mother’s Milk Breast milk in feeding infant constitutes important part of natural life of woman. An infant who is feeding milk in mother’s hug, newly born baby looks at mother’s face directly and compassionate and affable looks of mother has engulfed infant. Avicenna in his famous “Qanoon” Book pointed to the significance of mother’s milk and said: “Mother’s milk is better than any other milk for infant, because, mother’s milk is rich in a substance named “immunoglobulin” which is useful for diarrhea and vomiting (nausea).” In early August 1990, World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with UNICEF signed a statement in continuation of disseminating and supporting feeding with breast milk. Duration of Breastfeeding The Holy Book considered breastfeeding for a period of two years. Some physicians were of the opinion that this period should be set nine months, but in 1993, it was announced that of breastfeeding is set two years, it is better and complete. Breastfeeding Duration Based on Verses of Holy Quran Based on Verse 233 of Baqara Surah, it should be noted that feeding infant for two years is not compulsory. That is to say that completion of breastfeeding can be decided at the will of mother. Child can be separated from breastfeeding at any time desired.” Some commentator such as Ibn-e Abbas is of the opinion that breastfeeding for two years is not fixed for any newly born baby. This time i.e. two years is related to a child who is born in his or her six-month period i.e. earlier than the set 9-month period. Allameh Tabatabaei (1987) concluded from merging two verses of Holy Quran and said: “Six months is set the minimum delivery period. With deducing two- year period from thirty months, minimum pregnancy period is set six months and maximum breastfeeding, according to jurisprudent verdict, is set 24 months.” “If a child remained in mother’s womb in seven, eight or nine months  the minimum breastfeeding after childbirth stands at 23, 22 and 21 months respectively.” Imam Sadiq (AS) said: “The compulsory period for breastfeeding is 21 months. So, if women fed child less than the said period, she has failed in performing religious obligation. Feeding child for two years is suitable and logical.” (Hor Ameli, 1995, Vo. 21)

See details
Five Anti- Fatigue Foods Five Anti- Fatigue Foods

Five Anti- Fatigue Foods If you feel faint, lethargy, fatigue and tiresome after eating, it is due to eating improper foods. It is recommended to eat the foods which can release energy gradually. Avoid eating foods with high sugar. You can fight with fatigue with each morsel of food you eat. These five foods are useful due to their easy digestion which is rich in nutrients. Crushed wheat or barley Crushed barley is superiority to any other cereals in breakfast. Crushed barley is among bran cereals I breakfast and is considered as an excellent foodstuff in line with supporting health of gastrointestinal system. Due to the said reason, not only many internal practitioners and nutritionists recommend patients surfing from diabetes to eat crushed barley, but also they encourage patients to eat crushed barley. It should be noted that crushed barley helps safeguard natural blood sugar level. Fiber is useful in gastrointestinal tract. Moreover high fiber, oats includes three types of important food nourishment of magnesium, protein and phosphor that affects on energy level and is considered as an ideal food to tackle fatigue and also is a good source of vitamin “B1”. In general, fiber is very important in production of energy for body. Symptoms of partial deficiency of vitamin “B1” include as follows: lack of energy and losing appetite. In addition, vitamin “B1” helps conserve analyzed energy and also helps food generate energy at the time of eating. When to eat? You can eat crushed barley at breakfast in order to obtain more energy, because, it will cause preservation of energy. Added Value For prolongation of energy period, pour cotton seed or nuts rich in vitamins (hazelnut, walnut and pistachio) on food containing crushed barley. Yogurt Yogurt can be used in the form of desserts as a healthy food. As a matter of fact, this food can be effective for health due to the role protein and probiotics (useful bacteria) play in health of intestine. Procedure of Performance Since yogurt is soft, body carries out this food processing rapidly with regard to solid and hard food and it will turn it into a giant source of energy. This period can be lasted longer due to the ratio of protein to carbohydrates. Also, yogurt enjoys probiotics (useful bacteria). Probiotics, like fiber, help digestion of food effectively. When to eat yogurt? Certainly, you can eat this food at any time desired. Moreover health benefits, yogurt is one of the best multipurpose material. That is to say that you can eat yogurt before doing physical exercises as a readymade food and/or supper. On the other hand, you can add other materials such as oats, milled cotton seed, nuts (walnut, hazelnut and pistachio) to yogurt at breakfast. Added Value Eat yogurt at least trice a week (three times a week) which can help food digest well. In you select low- and regular- fat yogurt, add other useful materials to it and enjoy eating. You can also add raisins for sweetening this light food as well. Spinach Spinach is rich in nutrients which is necessary to tackle fatigue and tiresome. Spinach will enhance performance of body. Moreover containing iron, spinach is rich in vitamins such as magnesium and potassium and is a good food source of vitamins of Group “B”. Procedure of Performance Iron plays an important and direct role in removal of fatigue and tiresome and is known as booster of energy. Magnesium is necessary for generation of energy, accurate and easy digestion of food, regulating tonicity (muscular contraction) and nervous system. It should be noted that magnesium deficiency can cause low performance of brain and body. Like magnesium, potassium helps accurate performance of muscles and nerves. High physical pressure is one of the main reasons of potassium deficiency. Weakness, faintness of muscles, dizziness and fatigue are symptoms of failure of potassium. When to eat spinach? Given the complex of nutrients in green- leaf vegetables, it is better to consume spinach in daily diet. Try to consume steamed spinach with egg at breakfast. There is no need to set aside a portion of spinach beside your meals, rather, you can add spinach to foods such as soups, steamed foods, sauces, frying and soft foods. Added Value Cook puree of spinach slowly. If more logical is adopted, all family members will get a healthy body in a very short period. Nuts and seeds and nutrient food include high- quality protein and also healthy omega- 3 fats. Depending on type of selection, you can receive proper amounts of magnesium, manganese, phosphor, iron and vitamins “B2”, “B1” and “B6”. Procedure of Performance Seed of bell pepper, almond and hazelnut are good sources of magnesium which help improve fatigue and tiresome. Tryptophan available in seeds of sesame, sunflower, walnut and almond are effective to tackle with fatigue. All nuts and seeds are rich in proteins which can cause body regain lost energy. Existence of rich resources of fatty acids (omega -3) in nuts and seeds is effective in removal of fatigue. Omega- 3 is known as necessary fats for body. No only Omega- 3 reduces glycaemia index of foods, but also it acts like an extraordinary energy source. When to eat dried nuts and kernels of fruits? Dried nuts and kernels and seeds of fruits can be eaten in the long run of a day. A fist of nuts is enough to be eaten during a day. You can use it everywhere, carrying nuts in purse, handbag and/or put them in car in order to eat. Added Value Buy and eat dried nuts and also raw seeds as much as possible.

See details
Fat Substitutes Fat Substitutes

Fat Substitutes Introduction : Fat substitutes are in fact substances used from long ago and only new methods have been developed for their application. For instance, Carrageenan which has been used as stabilizer and emulsifier since 1960s onward currently serves as fat substitute. Another group of them had formerly no application but have been derived from main compounds, and, the third type is the substitutes which are a blend of main substances, like Olestra. Aiding reduction of saturated fat level, reduction of energy consumption for health improvement, enhancement of food deliciousness without increasing fat amount and lowering risk of obesity, and specific and chronic diseases are among the intents pursued in consumption of fat substitutes. Fat substitutes have fewer calories for the food and the consumers control their calorie intake level via eating the respective foods. With a 10% reduction in fat content of foods, the daily calorie intake is reduced by 238 kilo calories. Therefore, utilization of fat substitutes in foods will be accompanied with reduction of fat content and reduction of energy intake. Fat substitutes are classified in three groups: protein-based, fat-based, and carbohydrate-based fat substitutes. Each group has their own advantages and disadvantages and exhibit different functional properties. In dietary systems, further desirability can be achieved using two or several fat substitutes. Carbohydrate-based Substitutes This group has a creamy fatty state. They absorb water and stabilize food and increase its volume and stability. In this substitution, the calorie intake is also decreased for 5 calories per each gram in addition to reduction of fat content. Their substantial application is as stabilizer and fixators. They are utilized in many food products such as dairy industries, frozen desserts, sauces, salad icing, processed meat, cooking foods, spreads, chewing gums, and sweets and candies. Nonetheless, they are not appropriate to be used in frying food products. Guar gum, gum Arabic, Xanthan gum, carrageenan, poludextrose, treated starch, oat and wheat fiber are in this group. Maltodextrin is a volumizing agent and does not require any adverse reaction. Polydextrose establishes a high viscosity in the solution and is accompanied with oral perception and creamy state in low-fat product. Maltodextrin is used as substitute of fat and sugar in foods. Maltodextrin and polydextrose are used in cooking industries. Protein-based Fat Substitutes For this substitution, proteins are heated and then rotated inside a mixer severely until very tiny particles referred to as “micropartciles” are formed out of proteins at the end. The products of this group are obtained from proteins of whey, milk, and egg which contain 1-4 kilocalories per one gram of their consumption. The acquired protein microparticles are tiny and powdery particles that can create desirable oral sense and similar to fat. This group is generally mixed with water and can be used in lower fat amounts. For example, it is possible to replace 3 grams of fat by 1 gram of protein-based fat substitutes. This group is not suitable for use in fried foods but can be utilized in dairy industries like fat-free ice-cream, frozen desserts, and milk shakes. Protein mixture is another group of this substitute group and consists of a blend of plant and animal proteins, gum, food starch, and water used in frozen desserts and baking industries. Whey protein concentrate is one of the fat imitators and is broadly used in emulsions with reduced fat alone or in the presence of other fat imitators. The commonly used concentrates include the whey concentrate 34 and 80 (containing 34 and 80% of protein). They exhibit diverse functional properties and similar to fat such as gel formation, emulsion formation, water absorption, viscofication, and adhesiveness. Fat-based Fat Substitutes This group can entail chemical variations of fatty acids that reduce the calorie intake even up to zero. Fat-based emulsifiers and substitutes include salatrim and olestra which have functional properties analogous to fat and generate nocalorie and are not absorbed when passing through the body. Mono- and di-glycerides also are fat-based fat substitutes. Emulsifiers are fat-based substitutes which are used together with water and replace partially or completely the shortening in mixture of cake, pan, icing, vegetables, and dairy products. They generate calorie similar to fat but are applied in product formulation at a lesser extent, which ultimately brings about reduction of fat and energy content. There are several classifications for fat substitutes. Fat substitute is an additive that acts like fat and traditional oil and can replace the fat at a 1 to 1 weight ratio, like olestra. Fat analogues are compounds which possess many of fat properties but different nutritional and absorption properties such as caprenin. Developer fat has the optimal functional properties of the fat and therefore reduces the fat content in food products; e.g. emulsifier. Fat imitators are additives which mimic one or several functional and sensory properties of fat. They are based on protein, carbohydrate and fat that can be used individually or in blended form. They contain about 0-9 calorie per gram of energy and are accompanied with water absorption, oral sense, and softening similar to fat. Protein-base and brine-soluble fat substitutes can be utilized in meat products. Applicable Types: CKF stabilizer and fat substitute is a set of cellulose gel, konjac, and Xanthan whose mixture has a synergistic effect in solution with cold water. If high stress is applied while mixing the gum in the cold solution, a heat reversible gel will be formed. Micro-crystallized cellulose in gum mixture helps emulsion and foam stabilization and creates a physical carrier and inhibitor against emulsion accumulation. They are very suitable for mayonnaise and sauces having very low fat content. Olestra with common brand name “Olean” is a compound connected to sucrose molecule via 6-8 acid bonds. Increase of fatty acids enlarges this molecule making it unabsorbable. Olestera has functional properties similar to fat and is also in frying as well. Olestra causes blockage of stomach veins, stool reduction, and prevents from absorption of fat soluble vitamins. Depending on fat source in sucrose polyester, olestra can be found in liquid or solid states at room temperature. It has organoleptic and thermal properties analogous to fat but is not decomposed by stomach lipase and pancreas. And it is not absorbed in the digestive tube either because of its very long molecule. Therefore, it is not metabolized for energy generation. Producers use olestra at situations where addition of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) is required. Caprenin is composed of behenic, capric, and caprylic acids which lowers level of bad blood cholesterol (LDL). Salatrim which is alias for short and long-chained triacylglycerides contains stearic, palmitic, and acetic acids. Salatrim is used in production of flavored chocolates and crisps. It has undergone reduction in its level of short-chained fatty acids as well as 50% of its stearic acid. This fatty acid compound is free from trans. Salatrim replaces hydrogenated fat and acts as shortenings. This product is used in baking and cake industries. All fat substitutes are in GRAS list and confirmed by FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Olestra was primarily introduced in 1996 for utilization in crisps and it shall be mentioned on the product package as mandated by FDA. In 2003, following assessments conducted, FDA relieved the necessity for mentioning olestra presence on the packages of food products. Only partial amount of fat soluble vitamins which are not absorbed by olestra shall be added to the respective foods. In this case, the respective vitamins are distributed in olestra and enter the body via the same substance. Benefits of Fat Substitutes Fat substitutes can leave an overall effect on the quality of diet should they constitute a part of individuals’ general herbal diet. For example, nutrients can be received by intake of salad sauce whose formulation contains fat substitute while the calorie level is low. In meat products, the respective substitutes do not merely act as reduction agents of fat and energy levels but also enhance the antioxidant value of the food. Fat substitutes based on protein derived from milk powder, whey, soybean and legumes can increase protein content of foods. The substitutes in margarine, spread, and dessert products reduce levels of fat, saturated fat, and trans- fatty acids. Fiber-containing substitutes such as inulin, lupin fiber, and beta-glucane are able to enhance nutritional value and increase dietary fiber amount. Yogurt with reduced fat can be obtained by replacing some amount of milk fat with fat substitutes. Fat substitute particles are apparently larger than milk fat globules. A researcher figured out that soft texture and desirable oral sense of fat-free yogurt can be achieved via simultaneously using the maltodextrin derived from enzymatic treatment of potato starch and treated waxy starch. Utilization of whey protein concentrate together with treated whey protein would create a yogurt with textural properties similar to high-fat yogurt. Merging protein-based and carbohydrate-base fat substitutes and their application in yogurt is accompanied with lower hardness and adhesiveness compared to completely fatty yogurt. In biscuits, fat content was reduced from 20% to 10, 8, and finally 6% following reduction of calorie level. The modified rheological properties in dough were analyzed using water absorption measurement device, Brabender farinograph, and Texture Analyzer. With decrease in fat level, dough hardness increased as well as the dough development time. Fat replacement by equivalent amount of maltodextrin and polyester and polydextrose reduced dough hardness and stability. Addition of monostearat and guar gum positively affects hardness and stability. Conclusion Nowadays, several solutions are assessed for reaching to a healthier food, and at the same time, having favorable sensory properties and marketability.  Use of fat substitutes is among the improved circumstances which bring about desirable properties for the product beside lowering the intake calorie level. Various fat substitutes are utilized in food industry. References 1-E. A. Prindiville, R. T. Marshall, and H.Heymann; 2000; Effect of Milk Fat, Cocoa Butter, and Whey Protein Fat Replacers on the Sensory Properties of Lowfat and Nonfat Chocolate Ice Cream1., Journal of  Dairy Science 83:2216–2223 2-Thidarat Juthong, Jittra Singthong and Wachirapan Boonyaputthipong., 2007; Using Mhakjong (Scaphium macropodum) Gel as a Fat Replacer in Thai Emulsion- Type Pork Sausage (Moo Yo)., Department of Agro-Industry. 3-Fat Replacers.,1998. scientific status summary.,gournal of food technology., 52(3). 4-Bobby R. Johnson, Ph.D.,2000,whey protein concentration in low-fat applications 5-F. RIBEIRO VIANA et al.2004. Fat Replacers in Ham Pâté, Food Technol; Biotechnol; 42 (1) 5–10 6-M.L. Sudha a, A.K. Srivastava b, R. Vetrimani a, K. Leelavathi.,2007. Fat replacement in soft dough biscuits: Its implications on dough rheology and biscuit quality., Journal of Food Engineering 80. 922–930 7-Geni R. Sampaio, Cl!audia M.N. Castellucci, Maria Elisabeth M. Pinto e Silva.,2004., Effect of fat replacers on the nutritive value and acceptability of beef frankfurters., Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 17. 469–474 8-Position of the American Dietetic Association:Fat Replacers.,2005. Journal of the American dietetic association 9- O.Sandoval-Castillaa, C. Lobato-Callerosa, E. Aguirre-Mandujano.,2004. Microstructure and texture of yogurt as influenced by fat replacers; International Dairy Journal 14.151–159 10-www.gumtech.com 2009/4/24

See details

آدرس:  تهران بلوار آفریقا، تقاطع ظفر، ساختمان کساء، شماره 93، طبقه 5، واحد11