With the progress of human communities, attaining top science and technologies in food industries in particular, role of nutrition and food nourishment is a factor for safeguarding survival and removal of body’s required energy. In other words, role of nutrition has currency changed for boosting health and helps treatment of various diseases.
Probiotic is a word which has been vastly used in many medical studies.
What is probiotic?
Probiotic is a Greek word which is meant “For Life”. World Health Organization (WHO) defines this terminology for live microorganisms. Not only “probiotic” is not considered as pathogen, but also it will help improve health of host. “Probiotic” includes various types of bacteria, fungus and fermentation. Human intestine includes almost 100 trillion live bacteria that generate intestine microbial fleur. These bacteria include useful and harmful types. Useful bacteria have an important role in production of body’s required compounds such as vitamins “B” and “K”, short chain fatty acids, amino acids and various antioxidants and also control of growth of detrimental bacteria and fighting with infections and pathogenic factors.
(Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects to humans and animals. Introduction of the concept is generally attributed to Nobel Prize recipient Élie Metchnikoff, who in 1907 suggested that “the dependence of the intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes”. A significant expansion of the potential market for probiotics has led to higher requirements for scientific substantiation of putative beneficial effects conferred by the microorganisms. Studies on the medical benefits of probiotics have yet to reveal a cause-effect relationship, and their medical effectiveness has yet to be conclusively proven for most of the studies conducted thus far.
Commonly claimed benefits of probiotics include the decrease of potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms; the reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort; the strengthening of the immune system; the improvement of the skin’s function; the improvement of bowel regularity; the strengthening of the resistance to cedar pollen allergens; the decrease in body pathogens; the reduction of flatulence and bloating; the protection of DNA; the protection of proteins and lipids from oxidative damage; and the maintaining of individual intestinal macrobiotic in subjects receiving antibiotic treatment.
Scientific evidence to date has been insufficient to substantiate any anti-disease claims or health benefits from consuming probiotics.)
Lactobacillus and bifid and bacterium are considered as most important and salient species of probiotic bacteria.
What Are the Factors Which Cause Probiotics’ Growth?
When a child is born, his or her intestine lacks any bacteria. In other words, human intestine lacks any bacteria at the time of birth. Breastfeeding or mother’s milk contains compounds named bifidious which causes growth of bifid-o bacterium in infant’s intestine. For this purpose, breastfeeding is of paramount importance in strengthening infant’s immune system. Consumption of fermentable and low – digest carbohydrates will cause motivation of growth of probiotics in intestine. These carbohydrates, which are considered as suitable food source for increasing probiotics’ mass, mainly include oligosaccharides, lactulose, galactic oligosaccharides, and multi oligosaccharides. Of their food resources, it can be referred to banana, honey, asparagus, leek, garlic and onion. These nutrients, which are required for growth of probiotics, are called as Prebiotic”. Moreover, the word entitled “Symbiotic” is referred to byproducts containing a mixture of pre- and probiotics. Since some factors such as improper nutrition, consumption of antibiotics and stress causes reduced value of useful bacteria in intestine, consumption of foodstuff enriched with probiotics and/or food supplements in the form of pill, powder, etc. seem necessary. Imbalance between useful and harmful bacteria, moreover reducing health level of body, cause outbreak of diarrhea, constipation, inflammatory diseases of intestine, reduced efficiency of immune system, allergy and different types of cancers.
Who Should Consume “Probiotics”?
- Treatment with antibiotics, moreover destruction of pathogenic factors, will cause eradication of useful bacteria, creation of gas and spasm and outbreak of diarrhea among 20 percent of patients. Entangling and disrupting osmosis balance of intestine and/or growth of detrimental bacteria named “clostridium dyphicel” have been cited as the main cause of diarrhea. Simultaneous consumption of probiotics during and after treatment with antibiotics is necessary for the provision of useful intestine fluorine as well as production of vitamins Group “B”.
- When children and adults are diagnosed with infectious diarrhea, useful intestine bacteria are increased after consumption of probiotics which will destroy pathogenic factors causing diarrhea, so that treatment span will be shortened as well. It should be noted that probiotics play their role with reducing acidity of intestine, production of antibacterial compounds and also competing in consumption of required nourishment of pathogenic factors. In other words, probiotics are tasked with reducing acidity (pH) of intestine, production of antibacterial compounds and also competing in consumption of required food of pathogenic factors.
- The results of studies show that with producing constructive and effective compounds, probiotics will help reduce inflammation, soothe symptoms of intestine’s inflammatory diseases and syndrome of stimulating intestine such as abdominal ache, flatulence (stomach gas), and diarrhea. In addition, probiotics help better digestion of herbal fibers resistant to digestion and increase toleration of patients to consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Probiotics play a leading and important role in strengthening body immune system. With the creation of a barrier against entrance of pathogen factors to blood, probiotics causes reduction of acidity of intestine, production of antibacterial materials such as organic acids, bacitracin, peroxide hydrogen, etc. Moreover, probiotics cause formation of protective layers on mucus, prevent substitution of pathogenic agents, increase cells producing immunoglobulin “A”, produce cytokines, and increase phagocytosis of pathogenic factors, increase lymphocytes “T” and white globules in cellular immune system.
- Many people are diagnosed with some symptoms such as flatulence (stomach gas), abdominal pain and diarrhea after consumption of dairies such as milk due to the shortage of lactose enzyme. Lack of analyzing lactose or milk sugar has been cited as the main aim behind outbreak of the said symptoms. With turning lactose into lactic acid, lactobacillus can be useful in reduction of gastrointestinal complications and also increase of toleration of consumption of dairies.
- With establishing equilibrium and strengthening performance of gastrointestinal and digestive tract, these bacteria (probiotics) soothe constipation, diarrhea and flatulence (stomach gas).
- Research activities also indicate that probiotics are able to reduce absorption of allergic substances from intestines. Also, probiotics are effective in reduction of infections of urinary and genital tracts in women, reduction of risk of colon cancer and also control of helicon bacteria pylori growth.
When and how much should probiotics be consumed?
Probiotic supplements are effective as long as they are consumed. To create positive effects of probiotics, daily receiving of food supplements with minimum 106- colony bacteria is highly recommended by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).